地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (2): 202-210.doi: 10.11821/xb200902007

• 人口与城市 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国人口分布的密度分级与重心曲线特征分析

葛美玲1,2, 封志明1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2008-05-16 修回日期:2008-11-20 出版日期:2009-02-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:葛美玲(1980-), 女, 博士研究生, 主要研究方向为人口地理与GIS。E-mail: geml.06b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家人口发展战略研究项目(F2008-1); 国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAC18B01)

Population Distribution of China Based on GIS: Classification of Population Densities and Curve of Population Gravity Centers

GE Mei-ling1,2, FENG Zhi-ming1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2008-05-16 Revised:2008-11-20 Online:2009-02-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    Strategic Research Project on National Population Development, No.F2008-1; Mega-project of Science and Technology for the 11th Five-year Plan of China, No.2006BAC18B01

摘要:

依据2000 年全国第五次人口普查数据, 利用ArcGIS 的空间分析功能, 将人口密度图分层显示, 并形成中国人口分布图系。在此基础上, 建立人口重心曲线, 根据人口重心曲线 上点的邻近性实施人口密度再分级, 由此获得了更具空间集聚特征的人口密度图。基于人口密度分级的多圈层迭加分析表明: 随着人口密度增大, 人口分布重心逐渐由西北向东南移动, 由稀疏趋于稠密, 中国人口分布多圈层集聚特征明显。人口重心曲线表明, 人口分布总体上是从高密度向低密度分布过渡的, 其中在低密度中也有高密度地区分布, 高密度地区也有相对稀疏的地区。基于人口重心曲线的中国人口密度再分级表明, 中国人口密度可以适度划分 为9 级, 据此可以将中国人口地理分布划分为集聚核心区、高度集聚区、中度集聚区、低度 集聚区、一般过渡区、相对稀疏区、绝对稀疏区、极端稀疏区、基本无人区等9 大类型区。 统计表明, 中国3/4 以上的人口集中分布在不到1/5 的国土面积上, 半数以上的国土面积上居住着不到2%的人口, 研究结果较好地揭示了中国人口分布的空间规律性。

关键词: 人口, 人口密度, 人口重心, 人口重心曲线, GIS, 中国

Abstract:

In this paper, with the spatial analysis functions in ArcGIS and the county-level census data of 2000 in China, the population density map was divided and shown by classes, meanwhile, the map system of population distribution and a curve of population gravity centers were formed; in accordance with the geographical proximity principle, the classes of population densities were reclassified to obtain a population density map which had the spatial clustering characteristic. The multi-layer superposition based on the population density classification shows that with the increasing of population densities, the population gravity centers of different layers move from the Northwest to the Southeast and have a tendency of becoming dense; the multi-layer clustering phenomenon of the Chinese population distribution is obvious, the populations have a water-based characteristic gathering towards the rivers and coastlines. The curve of population gravity centers shows the population distribution transits from the high density region to the low one on the whole, however, there are high density region in the low density area and vice versa. The reclassification research on the population density map based on the curve of population gravity centers shows that the Chinese population densities can be divided into nine classes, hereby, the Chinese population geographical distribution can be divided into nine type regions: the concentration core zone, high concentration zone, moderate concentration zone, low concentration zone, general transition zone, relatively sparse area, sparse area, extreme sparse area, and basic no-man's land. More than 3/4 of the Chinese population is concentrated in less than 1/5 of the land area, and more than half of the land area is inhabited by less than 2% of the population, the result reveals a better space law of China's population distribution.

Key words: population density, population gravity center, curve of population gravity centers, GIS, population