地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (5): 553-562.doi: 10.11821/xb201005005

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于小尺度的城市暴雨内涝灾害情景模拟与风险评估

尹占娥1, 许世远2, 殷杰2, 王军2   

  1. 1. 上海师范大学地理系,上海200234;
    2. 华东师范大学地理信息科学教育部重点实验室,上海200062
  • 收稿日期:2009-10-18 修回日期:2010-03-09 出版日期:2010-05-25 发布日期:2010-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 许世远, 教授, E-mail: syxu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:尹占娥(1963-), 女, 山西兴县人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110000896M), 主要从事遥感、GIS 和城市自然灾害等研究。E-mail: zhaneyin@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金面上、重点项目(40571006; 40730526); 上海市教委重点学科项目(J50402); 上海师范大学重点培育学科项目(DZL801); 上海市科技启明星项目(09QA1401800)

Small-scale Based Scenario Modeling and Disaster Risk Assessment of Urban Rainstorm Water-logging

YIN Zhan-e1; XU Shi-yuan2; YIN Jie2; WANG Jun2   

  1. 1. Department of Geography; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai 200234; China; 
    2. Key Laboratory of Geo-information Science of the Ministry of Education; East China Normal University; Shanghai 200062; China
  • Received:2009-10-18 Revised:2010-03-09 Online:2010-05-25 Published:2010-05-25
  • Supported by:

    The Key Project for National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571006, 40730526; Key Subject Developing Project by Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, No.J50402; Key Subject Developing Project by Shanghai Normal University, No.DZL801; Shanghai Youth Science and Technology Venus Program, No.09QA1401800

摘要:

自然灾害情景模拟与风险评估是灾害研究的核心内容和热点问题之一,但城市自然灾害风险评估至今却缺乏统一的程序与范式。本文选择了城市频发的暴雨内涝灾害为研究对象,结合上海市静安区实证研究,提出了一套基于小尺度的城市暴雨内涝灾害风险评估的思路与方法。基于灾害风险的基本理念,从致灾因子分析、脆弱性分析和暴露分析三方面入手,探讨不同情景下的小尺度城市暴雨内涝灾害情景模拟与风险表达方式;提出了小尺度城市暴雨内涝灾害风险评估宜采用情景模拟和综合分析方法,充分考虑城市的内部地形特征、降水、径流和排水等因素,创建一个基于GIS栅格的城市内涝模型,并基于多种重现期灾害情景,更客观地模拟内涝积水深度和淹没面积;采用多次实地调查获得的内涝损失数据,拟合出居民房屋和室内财产的灾损曲线;利用灾损曲线评估脆弱性、暴露要素和损失,建立超越概率-损失曲线,创建了基于GIS栅格城市暴雨内涝灾害的风险评估模型与范式,为制订城市暴雨内涝灾害风险管理和规划奠定了基础。这亦为进一步开展小尺度城市自然灾害情景模拟和风险评估研究提供了一种新探索。

关键词: 小尺度, 情景模拟, 暴雨内涝, 灾害风险评估, 上海

Abstract:

Scenario modeling and risk assessment of natural disaster is one of the hotspots of disaster research. However, urban natural disaster risk assessment, so far, is lack of common procedures and program. This paper selects rainstorm water-logging as research disaster, which is one of the most frequent occurring hazards in most cities of China, and sets up a small-scale based integrated methodology for hazards risk assessment of rainstorm water-logging, taking Jing\'an District in Shanghai as an example. Based on the basic concept of disaster risk, this paper applies scenario modeling to express the risk of the small-scale urban rainstorm water-logging disasters in different return periods. Through the analysis of hazards, vulnerability and exposure, we simulate different disaster scenarios and propose a comprehensive analysis method and procedure for the small-scale urban storm water-logging disaster risk assessment. A grid-based GIS approach, including urban terrain model, urban rainfall model, urban rainfall model and urban drainage model, was applied to simulate inundation area and depth. And then, stage-damage curves for residential buildings and contents were generated by the loss data of water-logging from the field surveys and the insurance company, which were further applied to analyze the vulnerability, exposure and loss assessment. Finally, the exceedance probability curve for disaster damage was constructed by using the damages of each simulated event and its respective exceedance probabilities. A framework was also developed for coupling the water-logging risk with the risk planning and management through exceedance probability curve and annual average of water-logging loss. And this is a new exploration for small-scale urban natural disaster scenario simulation and risk assessment.

Key words: small-scale, scenario modeling, rainstorm water-logging, disaster risk assessment, Shanghai

中图分类号: 

  • P426.616