地理学报

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中国空心化村庄演化特征及其动力机制

龙花楼1,  李裕瑞1, 2,  刘彦随1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-05-03 修回日期:2009-08-10 出版日期:2009-10-16 发布日期:2009-10-29
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随 (1965-), 男, 陕西绥德人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事土地利用和农业与农村发展研究。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:龙花楼 (1971-), 男, 湖南醴陵人, 副研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110001545m), 主要从事土地利用与乡村发展研究。E-mail: longhl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目 (40635029); 中国科学院知识创新工程农业重大战略项目课题(KSCX-YW-09)

Analysis of Evolutive Characteristics and Their Driving Mechanism of Hollowing Villages in China

LONG Hualou1,  LI Yurui1, 2,  LIU Yansui1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2009-05-03 Revised:2009-08-10 Online:2009-10-16 Published:2009-10-29
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China No.40635029; Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KSCX-YW-09

摘要:

影响空心村形成演化的因素主要涉及经济、自然、社会文化及制度与管理四个方面。基于区域经济社会与自然条件的差异性决定差异化的空心村类型这一原理,划分了空心村演化类型及类型区域。重点揭示了城乡结合部和平原农区空心化村庄发展演化的阶段特征。城乡结合部典型空心化村庄会在原址上完整演绎着实心化、亚空心化、空心化和再实心化等四个阶段;平原农区的空心村主要包括外出务工型集中高度空心化、外出务工型分散高度空心化、农业主导型集中低度空心化、农业主导型集中高度空心化等四种类型。一般状态下空心化村庄发展演化所表现出来的阶段性,大致与经济社会发展的时段特点相对应。最后,结合高分辨率航片(0.25m)和入户调查数据,基于平原农区村庄空心化演化的案例研究,剖析了农村空心化演化的动力机制。

关键词: 空心化村庄, 演化阶段, 演化类型, 动力机制, 中国

Abstract:

With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, there is a phenomenon of hollowing villages resulting from the vacancy and idleness of rural housing in the core of villages in the vast rural areas of China. It is a unique spatial morphology of China's rural settlements shaped by a "dual track" structure of rural-urban socio-economic development. The formation and evolution of hollowing villages is closely interrelated with the spatial organization of the activities of the rural population and the migration flows between town and country and between rural areas. Based on the characteristics of rural housing land-use, an evolutive model of the development stages of hollowing villages was constructed. Usually, there are four evolutive stages in a normal development process of hollowing villages at the urban-rural fringe, i.e., solidization, subhollowing, hollowing and resolidization, which corresponds with the temporal characteristics of China's socio-economic development. However, China has a vast territory with obvious regional differentiation in the level of socio-economic development, which contributes to coexisting different evolutive stages of hollowing villages in the same period, in provincial even larger scale. The influencing factors of hollowing village formation and evolution include four aspects such as economic factors concerning economic growth and technological level, socio-cultural factors embracing population change, social and land-use main body behaviors, institutional and managerial factors including land property right, price and policy, and bio-physical factors. Accordingly, the evolutive types of hollowing villages were classified, and using high-resolution remote sensing data and household investigations, the evolutive characteristics and its driving mechanism of the evolution of hollowing village types in plain agricultural region were studied.

Key words: hollowing village, evolutive stage, evolutive type, driving mechanism, China