地理学报

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入境旅游者旅游动机及其跨文化比较——以桂林、阳朔入境旅游者为例

张宏梅, 陆林   

  1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-14 修回日期:2009-04-07 出版日期:2009-08-20 发布日期:2009-09-21
  • 通讯作者: 陆林 (1962-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师。E-mail: llin@263.net
  • 作者简介:张宏梅 (1969-), 女, 副教授, 博士生, 主要研究方向为旅游消费行为。E-mail: hongmei_221@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40771059);; 安徽省教育厅基地项目(2008sk116,07sk109zd)

Cross-cultural Research on Inbound Tourists' Motivation: A Case Study of Inbound Tourists in Guilin and Yangshuo

ZHANG Hongmei, LIU Lin   

  1. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui, China
  • Received:2009-01-14 Revised:2009-04-07 Online:2009-08-20 Published:2009-09-21
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40771059; Department of Education Research Base Project in Anhui Province, No.2008sk116, No.07sk109zd

摘要:

文化是影响旅游者心理和行为的重要因素,旅游动机跨文化研究说明不同文化背景的旅游者有着不同的旅游动机,同一文化背景旅游者在不同的旅游目的地也有着不同的旅游动机。本研究根据国内旅游动机跨文化研究的不足,以桂林、阳朔入境旅游者为例,用多组验证性因子分析和单因素方差分析对来自五个不同文化群体入境旅游者的旅游动机做跨文化比较研究。研究发现产生于西方背景下的动机量表可以用于中国入境旅游研究;结构无差异被接受,因子无差异检验发现只有两个因子负荷存在显著差异。动机因子均值的跨文化比较说明北欧旅游者在文化、娱乐/梦幻动机和放松动机上的强度均低于盎格鲁和拉丁旅游者,盎格鲁旅游者在这三个动机上的强度均较高,文化动机是这三个群体的主导动机,亚洲旅游者的主导动机是放松。研究证明了中国入境旅游者旅游动机存在文化差异,旅游目的地的管理和营销应根据不同文化群体的不同需求提供满足其需要的旅游产品,采取差异化的营销战略,以形成有吸引力的旅游形象。

关键词: 旅游动机, 跨文化研究, 入境市场, 多组验证性因子分析, 桂林, 阳朔

Abstract:

Culture is an important factor that affects tourists' psychology and behavior. Cross-cultural research on motivation indicated that tourist motivations vary among tourists from different cultural settings, and that even tourists from the same culture have different motivations when they visit different destinations. China has been the fourth top international destination country since 2004, but little is known about inbound tourists' motivation and other behaviors. The primary purpose of this research is to compare the motivation of inbound tourists from five cultural groups. The measurement of tourists' motivation is adapted from the previous research, and the culture variable is measured by nationality. All respondents are divided into five cultural groups according to Hofstede's cultural clusters. The data from over 600 tourists visiting Guilin and Yangshuo are obtained during the period from October to November 2008. The response rate is 95.6%, that is, 578 tourists' data were used in this research. In this study, Chi-square test is used for the test of equality of tourists' demographic variables from five cultural groups, confirmatory factor analysis is used for the applicability test of foreign motivation scales, simultaneous factor analysis for several groups is used for the test of equality of structure and equality of scaling, and ANOVA is used for means comparison. The results show that five cultural group tourists have no difference in sex and marriage status, but have significant difference in occupation. Motivation scales from western research setting can be used in Chinese inbound tourism. CFA identifies that four factors of motivation are constructed, namely, culture, pleasure/fantasy, relaxation, and natural conditions. The test shows that two factor loadings (i.e. "to seek adventure" and "to get away from home") are significantly different, namely, structural invariant is accepted while factor invariant is rejected. The comparisons of motivation item means indicate that 8 out of 14 items have significant cultural difference, that is, Anglo, Germanic and Latin tourists score higher than Asian and Nordic tourists on "to understand more knowledge of new places", "to visit historical and cultural sites" and "to meet local people". Anglo and Asian tourists score higher on "to have fun", and Asian tourists score higher on "to mix with fellow tourists", "to enjoy good weather", and "relaxation". Comparing factor means indicate that tourists motivation strength from Nordic are lower than from Anglo and Latin tourists in terms of factors concerning culture, pleasure/fantasy, and relaxation, Anglo tourists have higher strength on all the three factors, of which culture is dominant motivation of the three groups. The conclusion is drawn as follows. Inbound tourists' motivations are sensitive to culture, that is, tourists from different cultural settings have different dominant motivations. Tourist destination should provide products and services that can satisfy different needs of tourists from different cultural settings, and use tailored marketing strategy so as to form an attractive destination image.

Key words: tourism motivation, cross-cultural research, inbound market, simultaneous factor analysis for several groups, Guilin, Yangshuo