Tribe A. Automated recognition of valley lines and drainage networks from grid digital elevation models: a review and a new method. Journal of Hydrology, 1992, 139(1/4): 263-293.
 O'Callaghan F, Mark D M. The extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data. Computer Vision Graphics and Image Processing, 1984, 28: 323-344.
 Martz W. de Jong E. Catch: a Fortran program for measuring catchment area from digital elevation models. Computers & Geosciences, 1988, 14(5): 627-640.
 Turcotte R, Fortin J P, Rousseau A N et al. Determination of the drainage structure of a watershed using a digital elevation model and a digital river and lake network. Journal of Hydrology (Amsterdam), 2001, 240(3-4): 225-242.
 Costa-Cabral M C, Burges S J. Digital elevation model networks (DEMON): a model of flow over hill slopes for computation contributing and dispersal areas. Water Resources Research, 1994, 30(6): 1681-1692.
 George M Hornberger, Elizabeth W Boye. Recent advances in watershed modelling. In: U.S. National Report to IUGG, 1991-1994. Rev. Geophys., 33(Suppl).
 Garbrecht J, Campbell J. TOPAZ: an automated digital landscape analysis tool for topopraphic evaluation, drainage identification, watershed segmentation and subcatchment parameterization. TOPAZ User Manual, USDA-ARS, Oklahoma, 1997.
 Douglas D H. Experiments to locate ridges and channels to create a new type of digital elevation models. Cartographica, 1986, 23(4): 29-61.
 Fairfield J, Leymarie P. Drainage networks from grid digital elevation models. Water Resources Research, 1991, 30(6): 1681-1692.
 Mark D M. Automatic detection of drainage networks from digital elevation models. Cartographica, 1984, 21(2/3):168-178.
 Martz L W, Garbrecht J. Numerical definition of drainage network and subcatchment areas from digital elevation models. Computers and Geosciences, 1992, 18(6): 747-761.
 E James Nelson. WMS v6.1 Tutorials, Environmental Modeling Research Laboratory, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, 236.
 E James Nelson, Christopher M Smemoe, Bing Zhao. A GIS approach to watershed modeling in Maricopa County, Arizona. American Society of Civil Engineers, Water Resources Planning and Management Conference, June 6-10, 1999.
 Smemoe, Chris M E, James Nelson et al. A conceptual modeling approach to CEQUAL-W2 using the watershed modeling system. In: Proceedings of the Hydroinformatics Conference, Iowa City, Iowa, July 2000.
 Green Jonathan I, E James Nelson. Calculation of time of concentration for hydrologic design and analysis using geographic information system vector objects. International Journal of Hydroinformatics, 2002, 1(2).
 U.S. Corps of Engineers, HEC-1 User's Manual, 1981.
 Cho S M, Lee M W. Sensitivity considerations when modeling hydrologic processes with digital elevation model. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 2001, 37(4): 931-934.
 Kenward T, Lettenmaier D P, Wood E F et al. Effects of digital elevation model accuracy on hydrologic predictions. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2000, (3): 432-444.
 Valeo C, Moin S M A. Grid-resolution effects on a model for integrating urban and rural areas. Hydrological Processes, 2002, 14(14): 2505-2525.
 Moore I D, Grayson R B, Ladson A R. Digital terrain modelling: a review of hydrological, geomorphological, biological applications. Hydrological Processes, HYPRE3, 5(1): 3-30.
 Yin Zhiyong, Wang Xinhao. A cross-scale comparison of drainage basin characteristics derived from digital elevation models. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 1999, 24(6): 557-562.
 Wise S. Assessing the quality for hydrological applications of digital elevation models derived from contours. Hydrological Processes, 2000, 14(11-12): 1909-1929.