地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (4): 559-570.doi: 10.11821/xb201304010

• 旅游与聚落地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

山东北部地区聚落遗址时空分布与环境演变的关系

郭媛媛1, 莫多闻1, 毛龙江2, 王守功3, 李水城4   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院教育部地表过程分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100871;
    2. 南京信息工程大学海洋科学学院, 南京 210044;
    3. 山东省文物考古研究所, 济南 250012;
    4. 北京大学考古文博学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-09 修回日期:2013-01-06 出版日期:2013-04-20 发布日期:2013-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 毛龙江(1976- ), 男, 湖南涟源人, 副教授, 主要从事环境演变与环境考古、海洋沉积过程与环境等方面的研究。E-mail: mlj1214@163.com E-mail:mlj1214@163.com
  • 作者简介:郭媛媛(1983- ), 女, 山东临沂人, 博士研究生, 主要从事环境演变与环境考古方面的研究。E-mail: yuanyuanguo29@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD183);国家自然科学青年基金项目(40901012);国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAK08B02);国家自然科学基金项目(41171006;41271228)

The relationship between settlements distribution and environmental changes from the Neolithic to Shang-Zhou periods in north Shandong Province

GUO Yuanyuan1, MO Duowen1, MAO Longjiang2, WANG Shougong3, LI Shuicheng4   

  1. 1. Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. College of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China;
    3. Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Jinan 250012, China;
    4. School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2012-10-09 Revised:2013-01-06 Online:2013-04-20 Published:2013-06-20
  • Supported by:

    Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11&ZD183; Youth Fund of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40901012; National Key Technology R&D Program of China, No.2013BAK08B02; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171006; No.41271228

摘要: 利用GIS软件对山东北部地区聚落遗址时空分布特征进行分析,并结合双王城剖面沉积环境分析和前人研究成果探讨了聚落时空分布与环境演变之间的关系。结果表明:距今8000-5000 年间,在气候温暖湿润和海面相对较高的环境背景下,人类活动主要集中在海拔相对较高(20~200 m),地形较为平坦(坡度< 2°)的洪积台地和冲积平原上;西部平原地区由于地势低洼,容易积水而发生水患,因而很少有遗址分布。距今5000 年之后,气候暖湿程度降低,海平面持续下降,人类活动范围明显向海扩展;西部低洼地区在气候变干和海面降低的双重影响下,自然环境得到改善,也开始被古人广泛开发利用。这一时期区域文化繁荣发展,逐渐形成社会结构复杂、城邦林立的初期文明。然而距今4000 年左右,由于气候变化和洪患灾害加剧,史前文化开始明显衰落。商周时期气候环境趋于稳定,文化发展再次兴盛。北部滨海平原地区随着生产技术的进步,人类适应区域资源环境条件,在早期农业人群难以定居的滩涂地上形成以盐业生产为主要经济活动的聚落群。

关键词: 遗址分布, 海面变化, 环境演变, 山东北部

Abstract: Using ArcGIS spatial analyst tools, this study analyzes the spatial and temporal distribution of ancient archaeological sites of six periods from the Neolithic Age to the Shang and Zhou dynasties in northern Shandong province. In addition, combined with the experimental analysis of Shuangwangcheng (SWC) profiles and previous studies, the relationship between site distribution and environmental factors is discussed. The results show that during the period of 8000-5000 aBP, the climate was warm and humid and the sea level was relatively high; therefore, archaeological settlements were mainly distributed on diluvial tablelands and alluvial plain with the altitude ranging from 20 m to 300 m and the slope lower than 2°. However, there were few archaeological sites distributed in the western low-lying plain as the result of frequent flooding events at this stage. After 5000 aBP, the cooling and drying climate and the lowering sea-level prompted the coastward expansion of settlements. Meanwhile, as a result of climatic drying and marine recession, environmental conditions in the western low-lying plain were also ameliorated, which attracted extensive human exploitation. The study area of this period was characterized by the rapid development of prehistoric culture, the intensified social stratification and the emergence of early city-states. However, around 4000 aBP, the abrupt change of climate and the increase in the frequency and intensity of flooding events severely disrupted human activities, which might be the main reason for the decline of the Yueshi culture. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the climatic conditions tended to be stable and assumed a mild-dry condition, which promoted the development of the culture to be prosperous again. The previous situation of sparse human settlements due to the lack of freshwater and being unfitted for sedentary agriculture improved during the Shang and Zhou dynasties in northern coastal wetlands. Local residents effectively adapted themselves to the harsh environmental conditions by producing sea-salt, which led to the rapid growth of ancient settlements.

Key words: settlements distribution, sea-level change, environmental change, northern Shandong Province