地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (4): 435-448.doi: 10.11821/xb201304001

• 产业与交通地理 •    下一篇

中国省区间制造业空间格局演变

毛琦梁1,2, 董锁成1, 王菲1,2, 李俊1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-06-21 修回日期:2013-01-16 出版日期:2013-04-20 发布日期:2013-06-20
  • 作者简介:毛琦梁(1987- ), 男, 博士生, 浙江湖州人, 主要研究方向为经济地理和区域经济。E-mail: more1987@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2007FY110300)

Evolving spatial distribution of manufacturing industries in China

MAO Qiliang1,2, DONG Suocheng1, WANG Fei1,2, LI Jun1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2012-06-21 Revised:2013-01-16 Online:2013-04-20 Published:2013-06-20
  • Supported by:

    National Science Fundamental Foundation of China, No.2007FY110300

摘要: 针对改革开放以来中国经济发展不均衡的客观事实,刻画了经济空间结构的中心—边缘特征,并对中心—边缘结构下的省区间制造业分布差异进行了分析和实证检验。研究发现,1978 年改革开放以来区域发展的中心—边缘结构日益显著,表现出明显的东部沿海偏向型。随着改革开放的深入,产业布局逐渐符合省区间的发展优势,产业在中心与边缘省区间的分异格局日益显著,中心省区逐渐专业化于中间投入需求较大、最终需求比重较高、规模经济特征显著以及劳动力密集与人力资本密集等产业,边缘省区则与此相反并且逐渐专业化于高能耗产业,传统比较优势理论与新经济地理学都在一定程度上有力地解释了国内产业空间分布。东西部地区间的中心—边缘结构某种意义上具有不可逆性,各地区工业化不同步将是长期趋势,产业在中心与边缘省区间的显著分异格局与演变特征表明东西部省区间产业发展的差异不仅仅体现为当前空间分布的不同,更意味着未来各个省区内部产业结构演变轨迹的差异。

关键词: 中心—边缘结构, 空间分布, 制造业, 地区特征, 产业特征

Abstract: In the context of uneven development, industrial structure differentials exist in core and peripheral regions. This paper, concerning uneven development since reform and opening-up in China, firstly presents descriptive evidence of the core-periphery pattern of economic spatial structure. Then it empirically analyzes the impact of core-periphery gradient across provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) on industrial location and assesses the extent to which these provinces have changed in recent years by taking manufacturing industries as cases and employing statistical data of the 2nd and 3rd China Industrial Censuses and the 1st and 2nd China Economic Censuses. Since China's reform and opening-up, economic spatial structure of China has been presenting a significant core-periphery pattern, and the economic center evidently skews to east coastal areas. With the deepening of market reform and expansion of globalization, industrial location is gradually in line with development advantages across provinces, and shows preferences between core and peripheral provinces with respect to different industries. The core provinces specialize in those industries characterized by strong forward and backward linkages as well as high consumption ratio, high degree of increasing returns to scale, labor intensive or human-capital intensive, however, it is the other way around to peripheral provinces, in addition, energy intensive industries gradually concentrate in peripheral ones. Comparative advantage theory and new economic geography to a certain degree identify the underlying forces that determine spatial distribution of manufacturing industries in China. This paper indicates that it will be a long-term trend that industrialization of regions in different gradients is not synchronized. In a certain period, provinces are bound to develop industrial sectors in line with regional characteristics and development stage. Core-periphery gradients by industry across provinces demonstrated in this paper indicates that industrial development differentials between eastern and western provinces are not only the uneven distribution of industries but also the inconsistent evolving trends of industrial structure for each province.

Key words: core-periphery pattern, spatial distribution, manufacturing industries, region characteristic, industrial characteristic