地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (3): 398-413.doi: 10.11821/xb201303011

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

南洛河流域洛南盆地表土孢粉与植被的关系

张文超1, 李春海2, 鹿化煜1, 田先华3, 张红艳1, 雷昉1, 唐领余4   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院、气候与全球变化研究院, 南京 210093;
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所、湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;
    3. 陕西师范大学生命科学学院, 西安 710062;
    4. 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 南京 210008
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-07 修回日期:2012-12-07 出版日期:2013-03-20 发布日期:2013-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 鹿化煜(1968-), 男, 教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110007360M), 从事第四纪环境变化和自然地理学教学与研究工作.E-mail: huayulu@nju.edu.cn E-mail:huayulu@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张文超(1988-), 男, 河南鹿邑人, 硕士研究生, 主要研究孢粉等记录的古气候古环境变化及其与古人类生存演化的关系.E-mail: superwenly@yeah.net
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(41072122; 40930103; 41021002); 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项项目(XDA05120704;XDA05130201)

Relationship between surface pollen assemblage and the vegetation in Luonan Basin, eastern Qinling Mountains, Central China

ZHANG Wenchao1, LI Chunhai2, LU Huayu1, TIAN Xianhua3, ZHANG Hongyan1, LEI Fang1, TANG Lingyu4   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;
    3. College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China;
    4. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
  • Received:2012-08-07 Revised:2012-12-07 Online:2013-03-20 Published:2013-05-10
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41072122; No.40930103; No.41021002; The “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the CAS, No. XDA05120704, No. XDA05130201

摘要: 选取南洛河上游洛南盆地10 种植被类型下40 处样点表土苔藓开展孢粉与植被关系的研究.结果表明,表土中孢粉组成能很好地反映植被类型.森林表土中乔木植物花粉含量平均值大于40%,且有较高含量的中华卷柏孢子;疏林草原、灌丛群落中乔木植物花粉平均含量分别为13.2%和16.6%,灌木植物花粉相对草丛群落含量较高;草丛群落和农田中乔木花粉平均含量均<10%,草本植物花粉>80%,灌木植物花粉<1%.洛南盆地表土孢粉总浓度平均为1.42×105粒/g,与植被覆盖度关系较弱,而与植被类型有一定联系,能辅助植被类型的辨识.聚类分析和PCA分析都能较好区分森林和非森林植被,前者能较好地区分松林和混交林,后者能较好地区分农田和灌、草丛植被,且比聚类分析更加稳定.松属、栎属等乔木花粉具有较强的扩散能力,能指示区域植被,松属没有表现出很强的超代表性,栎属具有低代表性;蒿属花粉与植被覆盖度间的相关关系较差,具有明显的超代表性,其大量出现与人类的干扰有一定的联系,禾本科花粉具有很好的植被指示性和低代表性,藜科花粉的高含量主要指示了高强度的人类活动;中华卷柏孢子在地层中的大量出现具有指示森林或松林环境的意义.

关键词: 表土孢粉组合, 植被类型, 聚类分析, PCA分析, 洛南盆地

Abstract: The catchment of South Luohe River in Central China is a major region for investigating modern pollen-environment relationship because it is an environment transitional zone which is sensitive to the climatic change. In this study, 40 surface sediment samples under 10 vegetation types in Luonan Basin, upper catchment of South Luohe River were taken to investigate the relationship between pollen assemblage and plant vegetation. The results show that the surface pollen compositions reflect the vegetation quite well, with unique features among different vegetation types. In the forest topsoils, the average of arboreal pollen percentage is greater than 40%, and the Selaginella sinensis spore content is higher. As to woodland shrubs and shrubs, the tree pollen average is 13.2% and 16.6% respectively, and the shrub pollen is higher than grass samples. And the grass and farmland topsoils are characterized by the low percentages of tree and shrub pollen (<10% and <1%), and high percentages of herb pollen (>80%). Pinus, Quercus and some other tree pollens can indicate the regional vegetation in terms of their dispersal ability. Quercus pollen is under-representative and so is to Pinus, which is quite different from general. Artemisia pollen is significantly over-represented, has poor correlation with plant coverage, and may reflect human disturbance. Gramineae can indicate plants quite well, but with low representation. High percentages of Chenopodiaceae component probably suggest human activities and predominant Selaginella sinensis may be a significant indication of forest environment. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) can distinguish forest and non-forest vegetation well. The former one is better at separating pine and mixed forests, while the latter one at farmland and other non-forest and more stable than that of the cluster analysis. The first axis of PCA analysis is likely to mainly reflect the humidity. The average of surface pollen concentration in Luonan Basin is 1.42 × 105 grains/g. The pollen concentration does not correlate with vegetation coverage, but may help to distinguish vegetation types.

Key words: surface pollen, vegetation type, cluster analysis, PCA, Luonan Basin