地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (3): 372-379.doi: 10.11821/xb201303008

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

煤矸石山不同植被恢复模式对土壤养分的影响——以山西省河东矿区1号煤矸石山为例

王尚义, 石瑛, 牛俊杰, 樊兰英   

  1. 太原师范学院, 太原 030012
  • 收稿日期:2012-11-12 修回日期:2013-12-18 出版日期:2013-03-20 发布日期:2013-05-10
  • 作者简介:王尚义(1955-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110003134M), 主要研究方向: 环境变迁.E-mail: wsy326@263.net
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071335)

Influence of vegetation restoration models on soil nutrient of coal gangue pile: A case study of No.1 Coal Gangue Pile in Hedong, Shanxi

WANG Shangyi, SHI Ying, NIU Junjie, FAN Lanying   

  1. Taiyuan Normal University, Taiyuan 030012, China
  • Received:2012-11-12 Revised:2013-12-18 Online:2013-03-20 Published:2013-05-10
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071335

摘要: 对2009-2011 年山西省河东矿区不同植被恢复模式下土壤养分进行了检测分析,并对其环境影响因子进行了研究.结果显示:(1) 随着矸石山植被恢复年限的增加,煤矸石山地温显著降低,植物多样性增加,盖度和生物量不同程度提高.(2) 经过3 年植被恢复的矸石山土壤速效磷和速效钾的改良效果达到全国土壤普查3 级水平;恢复土壤碱解氮和有机质含量为11.94 mg·kg-1和7.69 g·kg-1,改良效果不显著.紫穗槐模式对土壤速效磷的改良效果较好;紫穗槐—高羊茅—紫花苜蓿模式有利于碱解氮的积累;高羊茅—紫花苜蓿模式对速效钾和有机质的改良效果最佳.(3) 矸石山坡度和地温与土壤养分呈显著负相关;紫花苜蓿盖度与碱解氮、速效钾和有机质含量呈显著正相关;植被平均生物量和高羊茅盖度的提高有助于土壤养分的改良效果.煤矸石山植被恢复宜采取以草开路,在生态环境条件有所改善基础上,走草、灌、乔相结合的构建模式.

关键词: 煤矸石山, 土壤养分, 植被恢复, RDA

Abstract: The soil nutrients and influencing factors of vegetation restoration in Hedong coal gangue pile were studied from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that species diversity, vegetation coverage and biomass in coal gangue pile increased with the time of vegetation restoration while ground temperature decreased significantly. Contents of available phosphorus and available potassium in soil reached the third level according to the national soil gradation, and contents of alkali-hydro nitrogen and organic matter were 11.94 mg kg-1 and 7.69 g kg-1, respectively. Model of Amorpha fruticosa helped to improve the content of available phosphorus while the content of alkali-hydro nitrogen was the most under Model of Amorpha fruticosa, Festuca elata and Medicago sativa and the improvement of available potassium and organic matters under Model of Festuca elata and Medicago sativa was the best. Slope degree and surface temperature had significantly negative correlation with soil nutrient; the average biomass and Festuca elata coverage influenced significantly the soil nutrient; Medicago sativa coverage had significantly positive correlation with alkali-hydro nitrogen, available potassium and organic matters. Combination model of herb, shrub and tree were used when the eco-environment condition improved after herb was planted in the early stage of vegetation restoration of coal gangue pile.

Key words: coal gangue, soil nutrient, vegetation restoration, RDA