地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (3): 357-364.doi: 10.11821/xb201303006

• 水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于国际法的跨境水分配关键指标及其特征

冯彦, 何大明, 李运刚   

  1. 1. 云南大学亚洲国际河流中心, 昆明 650091;
    2. 云南省国际河流与跨境生态安全重点实验室, 昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-03 修回日期:2013-01-05 出版日期:2013-03-20 发布日期:2013-05-10
  • 作者简介:冯彦(1967-), 女, 研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110009017M), 主要从事国际河流及水资源利用与管理研究.E-mail: fengyan@ynu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40971091); 国家社会科学基金重点项目(11AZD04); 国家科技支撑计划课题(2011BAC09B07); 国家自然科学基金重点项目(U1202232)

Key indicators and the characteristics of trans-boundary water allocation based on international treaties

FENG Yan, HE Daming, LI Yungang   

  1. 1. Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;
    2. Yunnan Key Lab of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-security, Kunming 650091, China
  • Received:2012-12-03 Revised:2013-01-05 Online:2013-03-20 Published:2013-05-10
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971091; Key Project of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11AZD04; National Science and Technology Support Program, No.2011BAC09B07; Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.U1202232

摘要: 基于《国际淡水条约数据库》及1999 年以来相关跨境水资源利用与管理的研究成果,通过综合分析1864-2002 年49 个跨境水分配条约中的6 类28 项分水指标的区域与演进特征,判识跨境水分配的关键指标,结果表明:分水指标在实践中存在着明显的区域差异,在欧美发达地区的分水主要指标首先是维持最小水量,其次是多年平均水量,而亚非及南美洲欠发达地区则反之;少水区河流水分配的主要指标是多年平均水量和维持最小水量指标,而多水区河流则是维持最小水量和最大取用水量指标;从1864-2002 年分水条约签订的4 个历史时期上看,条约数量呈现少—多—较少—持平的变化趋势,条约的区域分布呈现出从欧美地区向亚非地区转移特征;主要分水指标从最早的维持最小水量和多年平均水量指标,演变到维持最小水量和最大取用水量指标,再到水利设施运行和多年平均水量,至最近的维持最小水量和多年平均水量指标,主要指标具有变化往复特点.综合跨境水分配条约中主要指标在不同时期及不同地区应用特征,可确定跨境水分配的关键指标为维持最小水量指标.

关键词: 跨境水资源, 国际法, 水分配, 关键指标

Abstract: Based on "International Freshwater Treaties Database" (1820-2007), the publications and reports on trans-boundary water utilization and management since 1999, in the paper, 28 indicators of water allocation involved in the 49 international treaties focusing on water volume signed in 1864-2002 are divided into 6 types, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the indicators are analyzed. The major results include: there are significant regional differences on the adoption of the indicators among 5 continents; the indicators adopted at rank first and second place in North America and Europe are "minimum water volume maintenance" and "mean annual runoff", but in Asia, Africa and South America, the ranking places of the above two indicators are reversed; the major adopted indicators in the international rivers with less water are "mean annual runoff" and "minimum water volume maintenance", the ones in the international rivers with more water are "minimum water volume maintenance" and "maximum water intake"; among the four periods of the international treaties development in 1820-2002, the trend of the numbers of the signed treaties is few-more-less-flat, the regional distribution of the treaties shifts mainly from North America and Europe to Asia and Africa; the major adopted indicators on water allocation are shifted from "minimum water volume maintenance" and "mean annual runoff" before 1945, to "minimum water volume maintenance" and "maximum water intake" in 1946-1971, then to "hydraulic project operation" and "mean annual runoff" in 1972-1991, and final to "minimum water volume maintenance" and "mean annual runoff" in 1992-2002.

Key words: trans-boundary water resources, international treaties, water allocation, key indicator