地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (1): 58-68.doi: 10.11821/xb201301008

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

旧石器时代至商周时期贵州遗址空间分布及其自然环境背景

李开封1, 朱诚1, 王鑫浩2, 曹波3, 赵小帆3   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京210093;
    2. 河海大学水文水资源学院, 南京210098;
    3. 贵州省文物考古研究所, 贵阳550004
  • 收稿日期:2012-09-19 修回日期:2012-10-18 出版日期:2013-01-20 发布日期:2013-03-19
  • 通讯作者: 朱诚(1954-),男,安徽歙县人,博士,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110002572M),主要研究方向为地貌与第四纪环境。E-mail:zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn E-mail:zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn
  • 作者简介:李开封(1986-),男,河南虞城人,博士研究生,研究方向为自然地理与全球变化。E-mail:henanlkf@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41171163; 40971115); 南京大学研究生科研创新基金项目(2012CL02); 国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD183); 教育部高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金项目(20090091110036)

The archaeological sites distribution and its relationship with physical environment from around 260 ka BP to 221 BC in Guizhou Province

LI Kaifeng1, ZHU Cheng1, WANG Xinhao2, CAO Bo3, ZHAO Xiaofan3   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China;
    3. Guizhou Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Guiyang 550004, China
  • Received:2012-09-19 Revised:2012-10-18 Online:2013-01-20 Published:2013-03-19
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171163, No.40971115; Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Nanjing University, No.2012CL02; Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China, No. 11&ZD183; University Doctoral Foundation of China, No.20090091110036

摘要: 根据对贵州230 处遗址的时空变化分析发现, 贵州旧石器时代遗址集中分布在中部、西北部和黔西南等喀斯特发育的高海拔区域。至新石器时代, 遗址仍集中分布在中部、西北部和黔西南地区, 但南部、东部等沿河地带和中西部的山间坝子开始有遗址分布。到商周时期, 遗址主要分布在沿河地带和山间坝子里。其中, 东部和南部海拔低于1000 m的地区遗址多分布在沿河地带, 而西部和北部海拔高于1000 m的地区遗址则分布在山间坝子。贵州位于亚热带湿润气候区, 气候环境的冷暖干湿波动对从事渔猎、采集及原始农业生产的古人类影响不大, 人类居住空间变化更多的与贵州特殊的自然地理背景有关, 特别是喀斯特地貌发育及适宜农业生产地方的空间差异, 对贵州旧石器至商周时期的遗址分布影响显著。旧石器时代人类以采集和渔猎为生, 临近水源的天然溶洞是人类居住的首选。随农业的出现和发展, 便于农耕的沿河地带和山间坝子成为人类的生活居住地。故新石器时代, 贵州先民居住呈现洞穴和河流阶地或山间坝子并存;至商周时期, 农业成为人类的主要经济生产方式, 人类主要居住在沿河地带和山间坝子里。

关键词: 旧石器时代至商周时期, 考古遗址, 时空分布, 自然环境, 贵州

Abstract: According to temporal-spatial distribution of 230 archaeological sites in Guizhou Province, we find that Paleolithic archaeological sites were concentrated in the central, northwestern and southwestern parts of this region, which were karst area with high-altitude and many caves suitable for human settlements. In the Neolithic period, archaeological sites distribution was similar to that in the Paleolithic period, and humans began to select basins and river terraces to reside simultaneously. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the archaeological sites were mainly distributed in the basins and river terraces, where farming dominated the economy. Lastly, the analysis of climate change in Late Pleistocene and Holocene suggests that climate fluctuations had little impact on human settlements, when people were engaged in fishing, hunting, gathering and farming. However the distinct physical environment in Guizhou played an important role in the changes of archaeological sites distribution, especially the spatial variability of karst landforms and suitable areas for agricultural development.

Key words: Guizhou Province, the Paleolithic Period to the Shang and Zhou dynasties, archaeological sites, temporal and spatial distribution, natural geographical environment