地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (12): 1686-1697.doi: 10.11821/xb201212010

• 旅游与文化地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家级风景名胜区旅游效率测度与区位可达性分析

曹芳东, 黄震方, 吴江, 徐敏, 周玮   

  1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-17 修回日期:2012-10-10 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2013-02-07
  • 通讯作者: 黄震方(1963-),男,江苏扬中人,博士,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110002383M),主要从事旅游地理与旅游规划研究。E-mail:zhfh@263.net E-mail:zhfh@263.net
  • 作者简介:曹芳东(1984-),男,江苏徐州人,博士研究生,主要从事旅游地理与旅游规划研究。E-mail:qichen84@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (41271149);国家社会科学基金项目 (08CJY051;12CJY087);江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目

The Relationship between Tourism Efficiency Measure and Location Accessibility of Chinese National Scenic Areas

CAO Fangdong, HUANG Zhenfang, WU Jiang, XU Min, ZHOU Wei   

  1. School of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2012-04-17 Revised:2012-10-10 Online:2012-12-20 Published:2013-02-07
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271149;National Social Science Foundation of China, No.08CJY051;No.12CJY087;A Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

摘要: 综合运用数据包络分析方法(DEA)与CES生产函数模型,测算了1994、2000、2009年国家级风景名胜区旅游效率,探讨了旅游效率与区位可达性之间的内在关联,结合GIS空间分析功能,定量模拟了区位可达性对风景名胜区旅游总产出的影响及其效率变化。结果表明:①国家级风景名胜区旅游效率水平整体较低,DEA最优比例较小,反映在空间上呈现东部高、中西部低的空间格局;区域划分上,东北地区、东部沿海、北部沿海综合效率较高,呈先提高后下降趋势,纯技术效率变化与综合效率较为相似,规模效率整体呈现上升态势。②国家级风景名胜区旅游效率高值区总体上呈现以江浙地区为点,分别以西南和东北方向为轴线,以中国人口地理分界线为弧线的“扇形”格局;类型划分上,以湖泊型、纪念地型、山水型、休闲疗养型风景区综合效率较高,山岳型、宗教型纯技术效率逐步提高,规模效率以森林型与山水型变化较大。③区位可达性与生产要素之间满足某一阈值时,区位可达性对旅游效率总体上起到促进作用,局部范围依然存在比例失调,成为制约旅游效率提升的瓶颈,旅游效率变化与总产出变化特征不尽相同,形成了负值区域集聚但偏向异同的空间格局。

关键词: DEA, CES生产函数, 国家级风景名胜区, 旅游效率, 空间格局, 区位可达性

Abstract: With the synthesized application of data envelopment analysis method and CES production function model, the study estimates the tourism efficiency of Chinese national scenic areas in 1994, 2000 and 2009, and analyzes the internal relationship between tourism efficiency and location accessibility. Combined with the function of GIS spatial analysis, this paper not only simulates the effect of the location accessibility on the overall tourism output of scenic areas as well as on its efficiency change. The results can be obtained as follows: (1) The overall tourism efficiency level of Chinese national scenic areas is lower and the optimal proportion of DEA is smaller, presenting a spatial pattern higher in the eastern region while lower in the central and western regions. In the spatial distribution, the comprehensive efficiency is higher in northeastern, eastern coastal and northern coastal areas, showing a first upward then downward trend. The pure technical efficiency change is similar to that of the comprehensive efficiency. Scale efficiency is increasing generally. However, along with the increase of the number of scenic spots in the area, the increment presents a descending trend. (2) The high value area of tourism efficiency of national scenic areas presents a fan-shaped pattern, that is, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces as the points, Southwest and Northeast China as the axes separately, and the division of population geography as an arc. As for the classification, the comprehensive efficiency of different types including lake, commemoration sites, landscape, leisure and healthcare scenic spots is higher. The pure technical efficiency of mountain and religion types increases gradually. The scale efficiency of forest and landscape types has kept rising. (3) When location accessibility and production elements can meet a certain threshold, location accessibility plays a positive role in promoting the overall tourism output generally, within the local scale the role is still under control. The characteristic of tourism efficiency change is different from that of the overall output variation, forming the spatial pattern of concentration on the negative value area while leaning to the similarities and differences.

Key words: DEA, CES production function, national scenic area, tourism efficiency, spatial pattern, location accessibility