地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (12): 1666-1674.doi: 10.11821/xb201212008

• 城市与人口研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

岩溶山地聚落人口空间分布与演化模式

李阳兵1,2, 罗光杰3, 邵景安2, 程安云4, 王成5, 白晓永4   

  1. 1. 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 贵阳 550001;
    2. 重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院, 重庆 400047;
    3. 贵州师范学院地理与旅游学院, 贵阳 550018;
    4. 中国科学院地球化学研究所环境地球化学国家重点实验室, 贵阳 550002;
    5. 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-20 修回日期:2012-05-28 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2013-02-07
  • 作者简介:李阳兵(1968-),男,潼南人,博士,教授,研究方向为岩溶环境与演变。E-mail:li-yapin@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    教育部“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”项目 (NCET-05-0819);教育部项目人文社科项目 (11YJCZH120);贵州省社会发展科技攻关计划项目 (黔科合SY字(2011)3076号)

The Evolving Models of Rural Settlements and Population Distribution in Karst Mountains

LI Yangbing1,2, LUO Guangjie3, SHAO Jing'an2, CHENG Anyun4, WANG Cheng5, BAI Xiaoyong4   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China;
    2. School of Geography and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China;
    3. School of Geography and Tourism, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, China;
    4. National Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Geochemistry Institute, CAS, Guiyang 550002, China;
    5. School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2012-01-20 Revised:2012-05-28 Online:2012-12-20 Published:2013-02-07
  • Supported by:

    Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, No.NCET-05-0819;MOE Layout Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences, No.11YJC- ZH120;Social Development Scientific Research Programs of Guizhou, No.2011-3076

摘要: 中国西南山区人口与聚落的演化对岩溶山区乡村规划、新农村建设、生态系统的管理和石漠化土地的治理有着重要的参考意义。利用长时间序列的高精度航片与卫片,结合实地农户调查,从20世纪60年代至2010年的聚落与人口耦合变化过程出发,在村级景观尺度开展了贵州高原中部典型峰丛洼地及其周边地区聚落空间格局变迁的定量研究,以探讨岩溶山地人口与聚落演化的模式及其机制,揭示聚落变迁过程中的人地关系动态。结果表明:① 在研究区农村37年的发展过程中,尽管农村聚落总数在不断增多,但还是形成了一些规模相对发展较快的中心村、镇;② 自然条件、交通相对较好和原来规模相对较大的聚落得到了优先发展;③ 由于农户外迁,位于中部峰丛洼地区通达性较差的部分规模较小的聚落消失或逐渐空心化;④ 在聚落和人口的自发演变过程中,一方面使部分退化的石漠化土地得到了恢复,另一方面聚落扩展严重占用了相当的优质耕地。

关键词: 岩溶山地, 聚落, 人口, 演化模式, 后寨河

Abstract: The typical fengcong depression (peak-cluster depression landscape) and its surrounding areas in the central part of Guizhou Plateau, Southwest China, which lies in the centre of the Southeast Asian karst region, was selected as the study area. A quantitative analysis of the settlement spatial pattern changes was made in village landscape scale coupled with variation process between settlements and population, based on high-precision images in 1963, 1978, 2005 and 2010, and rural household surveys. This paper aims to clarify the evolving model and mechanism of settlements and population in the karst mountains. During the period 1963-2010, the evolution process of rural settlements and population are shown as follows. (1) Some center villages and towns had formed, which developed faster compared with other settlement patches, although the number of settlement patches increased at the same time. (2) The settlements with better natural conditions, roads and bigger initial scales were given a priority to development. (3) The small settlements distributed in the fengcong depression with worse accessibility disappeared or tended to be hollowed villages, due to the emigration of local households to other regions. (4) In the spontaneous changing course of the rural settlements and population, some areas with degraded rocky desertification have been rehabilitated by the reduction of artificial disturbance, but some high quality arable land was occupied by the construction of settlements. It can be concluded that the attraction of accessibility and center villages increase, while the influence of cropland weakens the evolving of rural settlement obviously in the central part of karst mountains of Guizhou.

Key words: karst mountains, rural settlements, population, evolving model