地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (12): 1645-1656.doi: 10.11821/xb201212006

• 城市与人口研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市犯罪时空特征与机制——以北京城八区财产类犯罪为例

冯健, 黄琳珊, 董颖, 宋蕾蕾   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-10 修回日期:2012-10-18 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2013-02-07
  • 作者简介:冯健(1975-),男,副教授,博士,中国地理学会会员(S110004614M)。主要从事城市地理研究,在中英文刊物上发表学术论文80篇,出版专著10部。E-mail:fengjian@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40971085;41101151)

Research on the Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Mechanism of Urban Crime: A Case Study of Property Crime in Beijing

FENG Jian, HUANG Linshan, DONG Ying, SONG Leilei   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2012-04-10 Revised:2012-10-18 Online:2012-12-20 Published:2013-02-07
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971085;No.41101151

摘要: 城市犯罪的时空模式是地理学“格局”和“过程”研究的重要课题。本文以北京城八 区财产类犯罪为研究对象,利用GIS工具获取和处理空间数据,探讨城市犯罪的时空格局和时 空模式,并建立时空机制模型。研究发现:北京城市犯罪总体上呈现多中心分布格局,在商 业繁华地带和对外交通运输区存在明显的高强度带;各种犯罪类型空间格局既有共同性又有 差异性;城市犯罪嫌疑人数量存在季节分异特点,但同一区域的犯罪地点数目具有一定的稳 定性;就时空机制而言,场所的时空特征作用于财产犯罪参与者,进而作用于犯罪要素并影 响犯罪实施成功与否,而不同类型的财产犯罪对场所时空特征要求不同,这些要求一旦与北 京城市环境的特有属性耦合,便产生犯罪高发地段和高发时段,最终影响城市空间结构特点。

关键词: 城市犯罪, 财产类犯罪, 城市空间结构, 场所, 北京

Abstract: Urban crime problem brought about by the high-speed urbanization has arouse great attention from scholars in different fields, such as social scientists, psychologists and criminologists, whereas geographers place emphasis on the pattern and process of urban crime. In recent years, the Chinese crime information becomes more transparent and open than ever, thus providing a majestic opportunity of urban crime study for the academics. To get a better understanding of the spatial pattern of urban crime, the city of Beijing is chosen as a study area and the software of GIS is employed to collect spatial data. The authors try to establish the quantitative representation of geographical characteristics of the crime associated with urban space, in order to set up the geographical model of urban crime and space. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: First of all, the overall spatial distribution of urban crime in Beijing displays a picture of a polycentric structure and distance-decay. Secondly, the spatial distribution of urban crime has a reference to traffic center, concentration of urban commerce and population migration. Thirdly, the number of suspects and that of location where different types of crime happen have inter-annual variation, while both the total number of crime sites and their criminal density within each district are relatively stable. Fourthly, the spatial-temporal characteristics of sites act on both the participants of the property crimes and the criminal factors, which will decide whether or not an offender can commit a crime successfully. The hot spots and period of time of urban crime in Beijing has a close relation to the fact that the success of committing a property crime is based on a certain condition of sites and time, which appears in Beijing's environment. Finally, the spatial anti-crime strategies of urban crime and the insufficiency of research are discussed.

Key words: urban crime, property crime, urban spatial structure, site, Beijing