地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (10): 1399-1410.doi: 10.11821/xb201210010

• 生态与旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

理想类型叙事视角下的乡村景观变迁与优化策略

房艳刚, 刘继生   

  1. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 长春130024
  • 收稿日期:2012-05-03 修回日期:2012-07-24 出版日期:2012-10-20 发布日期:2012-12-19
  • 通讯作者: 刘继生(1955-),男,吉林东丰人,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110004336M),主要从事人文地理学理论与方法研究。E-mail:liujs362@nenu.edu.cn E-mail:liujs362@nenu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:房艳刚(1979-),男,山东曲阜人,副教授,中国地理学会会员(S110008452M),主要从事乡村文化景观演变、区域农业与农村可持续发展研究。E-mail:fangyg578@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41001107); 教育部博士点基金项目(20090043120003)

Rural Landscape Changes and Its Optimization Strategies: From the Perspective of Ideal Type Narratives

FANG Yangang, LIU Jisheng   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2012-05-03 Revised:2012-07-24 Online:2012-10-20 Published:2012-12-19
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41001007; Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China, No.20090043120003

摘要: 乡村景观是陆地生态系统的主体, 在整个人地关系中扮演着重要角色。20 世纪下半叶以来, 城市化、交通网络和全球化的迅速发展深刻地改变了乡村景观。不同学科、不同研究者对此有不同甚至相互矛盾的认识、解释和评价, 这影响了对乡村景观变迁的理性认识, 以及对乡村景观的高效利用和保护。本文采用理想类型叙事法, 利用国内外研究成果, 对乡村景观的变迁进行叙事分析, 提出更具包容性和解释力的4 种乡村景观变迁理想类型叙事:保护叙事、现代化叙事、公平生存叙事和内生发展叙事, 更客观全面地凝练乡村景观变迁的多元价值观、理论基础、核心假设和基本观点与建议。最后本文提出了乡村景观分异的7 种情景类型, 每种情景类型具有不同的判征指标、空间区位指向、主体景观和主要功能, 并结合理想类型叙事提出相应的优化策略, 以期为未来建设健康、富有生产力和吸引力、和谐的乡村景观提供科学参考。

关键词: 乡村景观, 理想类型叙事, 景观变迁, 景观情景类型, 景观优化

Abstract: Rural landscape is the main part of a terrestrial ecosystem, and plays a vital role in the human-environmental interactions. It mainly consists of rural building, settlement, agricultural land, and natural space, and has both commercial functions such as production functions and consumption functions, and noncommercial functions such as ecosystem service functions and defending functions of private rights. It is a cross field of geography, ecology, and social science. The development of urbanization, transportation network and globalization since the second half of the 20th century has profoundly changed rural space and rural landscapes. Different disciplines and researchers have different descriptions, interpretations and assessments in terms of these changes. Consequently, the rational understanding of rural landscape changes is impeded, as well as the optimized utilization and efficient protection of rural landscape. Using the research results published at home and abroad, this article put forward four more inclusive and explanatory ideal type narratives of rural landscape changes: protection narrative, modernization narrative, fair subsistence narrative, and endogenous development narrative. In this way, this paper refined the diversified values, assumptions, theories, viewpoints and strategies of rural landscape changes more objectively and comprehensively. The shift of rural areas from an economy centered on agriculture to a more service-centered economy is inevitably an increasingly global process. Meanwhile the rural landscapes and their functions have a significant spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability. In the end, this paper uses the natural, landscape, social-economic and spatial indicators to identify seven future scenario types of rural landscape evolution in China: arable production landscape, tourism landscape, natural landscape, agriculture-nature balanced landscape, nature-tourism balanced landscape, agriculture-residence balanced landscape, and rights competed landscape. Each type of rural landscapes has different locations, compositions and functions. Their optimizing strategies are discussed respectively so as to provide a scientific reference for the construction of healthy, productive, attractive and harmonious rural landscape in the future.

Key words: rural landscape, ideal type narratives, landscape changes, landscape scenarios, landscape optimization