地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (10): 1353-1361.doi: 10.11821/xb201210006

• 城市与历史地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

大城市低收入邻里社会贫困的测度差异与成因

袁媛, 李珊   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院城市与区域规划系, 广州510275
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-07 修回日期:2012-07-31 出版日期:2012-10-20 发布日期:2012-12-19
  • 作者简介:袁媛(1976-),女,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110006737M),主要研究方向为城市地理、城市规划与设计。E-mail:yyuanah@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071106; 41130747); 中央高校基本科研业务费中山大学青年教师培育项目; 英国ESRC项目

The Measurement, Spatial Differentiation and Driving Forces of Social Deprivation in Low-income Neighborhoods in Chinese Large Cities

YUAN Yuan, LI Shan   

  1. School of Geography Science and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2012-01-07 Revised:2012-07-31 Online:2012-10-20 Published:2012-12-19
  • Supported by:

    National Nature Science Foundation of China, No.41071106; No.41130747; The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, SYSU; ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) grants (RES-167-25-0005, RES-167-25-0448)

摘要: 社会贫困是对居民的社会保障和福利的享有情况、社会参与和融合等生活状况的测度。利用中国3 大典型地域、6 个代表城市、3 类邻里的1809 份个体问卷调查数据, 本文选取13 个相关指标, 判定个体是否处于社会贫困状态, 利用回归模型探究其影响因素, 并分析社会贫困现象在不同邻里、不同城市集聚的分异特征。研究发现, 6 个城市间的社会贫困集聚程度顺序为东部、中部和西部;3 大类邻里中, 社会贫困在城中村表现最为明显, 内城居住区次之, 企业配套居住区最低。中国城市居民是否处于社会贫困状态是体制(户口类型) 和家庭(教育程度、年龄等) 因素共同作用的结果。代表体制因素的户口类型对3 类城市的社会贫困均起到影响, 东中部城市中家庭因素也有一定作用。体制因素对城中村的社会贫困起显著影响, 而家庭因素在内城居住区和企业配套居住区中作用更大。

关键词: 社会贫困, 影响因素, 空间差异, 城市层面, 邻里层面

Abstract: Social deprivation is a measurement of social security and welfare, social participation and integration of residents. Based on the 1809 individual questionnaire survey data in six large cities and three kinds of neighborhoods of China's three regions, this paper systematically analyzes the measurement, spatial differentiation and driving forces of social deprivation. Firstly, at the individual level, this paper measures the individuals' condition of social deprivation based on the chosen indicators. The methods of principal component analysis and cluster analysis are adopted to deal with 13 selected indicators related to social deprivation. The paper identifies whether an individual is suffering from social deprivation. Secondly, according to the clustering results of social deprivation at the individual level, this paper calculates the location quotient of deprived families in six large cities and three kinds of neighborhoods, and analyzes the spatial difference. Thirdly, the logistic regression model is used to identify the significant attributes affecting social deprivation in the individual and spatial dimensions respectively. In the spatial dimension, the research indicates that social deprivation is most significant in urban villages, followed by the old urban neighborhoods, and the last is workers villages at the neighborhood level. At the city level, eastern cities have the highest concentration degree of social deprivation, followed by central cities and western cities. The logistic model results indicate that social deprivation is a combined outcome of institutional driving force (individual's Hukou type) and family attributes (including individual's education level, age). Hukou type, as an institutional driving force, is the common factor for three types of cities, and family attributes also have a certain effect in the eastern and central cities. Institutional force has significant impact on social deprivation in urban villages, while family attributes play greater roles in old urban neighborhoods and workers villages.

Key words: social deprivation, spatial differentiation, driving forces, city level, neighborhood level