地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (10): 1308-1316.doi: 10.11821/xb201210002

• 区域经济与产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市制造业空间格局演化及影响因子分析

张晓平1, 孙磊2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京100049;
    2. 北京国际工程咨询公司, 北京100055
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-17 修回日期:2012-07-24 出版日期:2012-10-20 发布日期:2012-12-19
  • 作者简介:张晓平(1972-),女,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,主要从事经济地理学相关领域的教学与科研工作。E-mail:zhangxp@ucas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40971075)

Manufacture Restructuring and Main Determinants in Beijing Metropolitan Area

ZHANG Xiaoping1, SUN Lei2   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    2. Beijing International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100055, China
  • Received:2012-02-17 Revised:2012-07-24 Online:2012-10-20 Published:2012-12-19
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971075

摘要: 制造业的空间扩散是推动城市空间结构呈现多极化、多中心地域系统的主要驱动力, 对制造业区位变迁及影响因素的研究是认识城市空间重构机制的微观基础。本研究基于北京市1996、2001、2010 年制造业企业数据, 以邮政编码区为空间单元, 刻画了北京市制造业空间集聚格局及演化特征。采用计量模型, 检验了导致北京制造业空间重构的主要区位因子, 对比了这些影响因子作用强度随时间的变化以及在制造业行业间的差异。结果表明, 北京市的制造业在中心城区的集聚度明显减弱, 呈显著的郊区化集聚;主要集聚区位于距市中心半径为15~35 km的空间范围内, 总体空间格局呈现出大都市区尺度上的扩散以及产业园区尺度的再集聚特征。计量模型计算结果显示, 区位通达度、集聚经济、科技园区规划与政策引导是北京制造业总体空间格局演化的主要驱动因素, 但不同区位因子的作用强度存在行业间差异。本研究揭示了北京市的制造业空间重组机制是政府规划引导下的市场经济作用机制。认识到城市经济活动空间重组中市场与政府的交互作用机理, 有助于决策者对转型期大都市区制造业空间集聚和扩散格局进行更加有效地引导, 以优化大都市区的空间结构与功能体系。

关键词: 制造业, 企业区位, 城市空间重组, 负二项回归模型, 北京

Abstract: At the transformation stage to post-industrialization process, the spatial distribution of economic activities in metropolitan areas tends to change greatly. As one of the key driving forces for urban restructuring, the agglomeration of manufacturing industry has important influence on urban functional optimization. Based on the manufacturing enterprises databases, this paper discussed the relationship between spatial shift of manufacturing agglomeration and the urban function restructuring in Beijing. By contrasting spatial shift of manufacturing density in Beijing metropolitan area in 1996, 2001 and 2010 respectively, the coupling relationship between the manufacturing diffusion and urban function optimization is explored. With the negative binomial models, factors affecting the location of manufacturing enterprises as well as its influence variation among sectors in Beijing are examined. The results indicated that factors such as locational accessibility, agglomeration economy, and development zones are the key determinants for manufacturing enterprises diffusing and re-agglomeration in Beijing metropolitan area. It was also explored that during the process of suburbanization, firms in different sectors can lead to different locational decisions. The high-tech manufacturing enterprises are more likely to agglomerate in central urban area compared to the resource-intensive manufacturing firms. It was concluded that both the market-oriented factors and the government planning factors have great significance on the spatial restructuring and urban function improvement of Beijing.

Key words: manufacturing industry, spatial restructuring, post-industrialization, Beijing