地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (8): 1098-1108.doi: 10.11821/xb201208008

• 区域经济发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1984 年以来北京零售业空间发展趋势与特征

于伟1,2, 王恩儒3, 宋金平1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京 100875;
    2.曲阜师范大学地理与旅游学院, 日照 276800;
    3. Department of Geography, University of North Dakota Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-26 修回日期:2012-04-27 出版日期:2012-08-20 发布日期:2012-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 宋金平(1970-), 男, 山东平邑人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110004814M), 主要研究方向为经济地理。E-mail: jinpingsong@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40571040); 国土资源部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201211001); 2010 年中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目

Changing Retail Spatial Patterns in Metropolitan Beijing since 1984

YU Wei1,2, WANG Enru3, SONG Jinping1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2.School of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276800, China;
    3. Department of Geography, University of North Dakota Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
  • Received:2011-12-26 Revised:2012-04-27 Online:2012-08-20 Published:2012-08-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571040; Special Funds for Scientific Research on Public Causes from the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, No.40571040; The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

摘要: 在采用虚拟变量对密度函数进行调整的基础上, 借助扩展方法引入时间变量构建计量经济模型测度北京零售业空间发展的分异与趋势, 并利用GIS技术研究了新型零售业的空间布局特征。结果表明:① 1984-2010 年, 近郊区零售业保持着强劲的增长势头, 增速是远郊区的近两倍, 而远郊区快于中心区, 说明中心区零售业地位的相对下降, 类似于20 世纪中期美国大都市区的发展特征。② 2000 年以来, 远郊区零售业增速下降, 近郊区小幅提升, 而中心区发展速度明显回升, 说明部分学者提出的20 世纪90 年代末期旧城区零售业“空洞化”、“边缘化”的发展趋势并未延续。③ 紧随人口的郊区化, 90 年代中期兴起的连锁超市以三环路为基础外向发展, 三、四环路和五、六环路之间数量较多, 而传统百货商店则主要布局在三环路以内。④ 以超市为代表的新型零售业空间布局呈现大分散、小集聚的特征, 没有表现出明显的等级性, 集聚区域既包括近郊人口密集区, 也包括远郊新城和城郊大型居住区。零售业的空间发展趋势与超市的空间特征共同显示, 北京应进一步提升远郊零售业的连锁化水平, 提高服务水平和质量, 促进居住与消费的空间平衡。

关键词: 零售业, 空间发展, 零售空间结构, 密度函数, 北京市

Abstract: Retailing in Beijing has experienced rapid change in the reform era, and has become an important engine driving the economy. However, there has been little systematic analysis of the retail structure change until recently. It was found beneficial to replace the distance-to-CBD variable by a set of dummy variables in the density functions which are widely used to analyze population and employment distributions. With the aids of the expansion methods of model construction, we formulate econometric model to measure the development of retailing structure change in metropolitan Beijing by the introduction of time variable. It is shown that the greatest growth rate in retail trade has occurred in the inner suburbs, and it is almost twice that of the outer suburbs. The growth rate is the lowest in core urban area. So, there is a relative decline of retail share in urban center, similar to the suburbanization of retail in American metropolitan areas. Since 2000, the pace of development in urban center has increased, and it has dropped in outer suburbs. It is contradictory with the previous notions of "downtown retailing vacuum". Based on GIS spatial analysis methods, the paper illustrates spatial structure of supermarkets in metropolitan Beijing. It demonstrates that following the population suburbanization, the supermarkets are mainly diffused to outside the third ring road while the full-line department stores are mainly located within the third ring road. More domestic supermarkets have been built between the fifth and sixth ring roads and foreign or joint-venture supermarkets are distributed between the third and fourth ring roads. It also indicates that the supermarkets in Beijing have obvious characteristics of spatial concentration including some new towns in the outer suburbs and the large-scale residential areas, but there is no obvious hierarchical structure with retailing and services centers. This study suggests that retail chains in the outer suburbs should be improved.

Key words: retail trade, retail spatial structure, spatial trends, density functions, Beijing