地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (8): 1011-1020.doi: 10.11821/xb201208001

• 城市与文化地理 •    下一篇

中国县域城镇化的空间特征与形成机理

刘彦随1, 杨忍1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-05-28 修回日期:2012-06-18 出版日期:2012-08-20 发布日期:2012-10-11
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41130748); 国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(41101162); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-EW-304)

The Spatial Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of the County Urbanization in China

LIU Yansui1, YANG Ren1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-05-28 Revised:2012-06-18 Online:2012-08-20 Published:2012-10-11
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130748; National Youth Science Fund of China, No.41101162; Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZCX2-EW-304

摘要: 本文综合运用样带、地统计、地理探测器等多种研究方法, 分析了1990 年以来中国县域城镇化的时空特征及形成机理。研究表明:①中国县域城镇化水平时空动态的差异特征显著, 北方边境县域高城镇化和东部沿海县域高城镇化形成的“人字形”空间形态逐渐凸显;以武汉都市圈为中心的两湖地区、成渝地区、关中—天水经济区的县域城镇化水平提升较快, 西南地区、青藏高原地区保持较低的城镇化水平;②2000 年以来中国县域城镇化水平及其变化速度的区域差异逐渐缩小, 陇海兰新线、长江沿线、北方边境、106 国道、东部沿海样带县域城镇化差异明显;县域经济发展阶段、固定资产投资、离中心城市距离、二三产业水平、农民人均纯收入、人口密度是影响县域城镇化空间分异的主要因素, 同时粮食生产主导定位、非农业人口统计口径、城镇设置标准等因素也影响县域城镇化水平及发展过程。未来城镇化发展应遵循地域差异, 凸显主导功能, 推进优化与重点发展区的集约型城镇化、耕地与粮食主产区的分流型城镇化、生态与水源保护区的迁移型城镇化, 以及园区与城镇近郊区的融入型城镇化, 实现城乡土地资源集约利用, 促进城镇化进程中人—地—业耦合与协调发展。

关键词: 县域城镇化, 乡村发展, 区域差异, 样带, 形成机理, 中国

Abstract: The spatial and temporal characteristics and the formation mechanism of the county urbanization in China since 1990 were analyzed systematically, using the methods including regional differences, transect and geography detectors. Results show that the temporal and spatial differences of the county urbanization were significant. The "herringbone" shape region pattern of high county urbanization was gradually highlighted, which were made by the counties along the north border and in eastern coastal areas. The county urbanization process of some regions were accelerated and enhanced, including Wuhan metropolitan region, Chengdu-Chongqing region and Guanzhong-Tianshui region. The low county urbanization level was maintained in Southwest China and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau regions. The differences of urbanization and the change rate of county urbanization were converged in China after 2000, but the rate has slowed down since 2000. The county urbanization trend of transects were significantly different, including Lianyungang-Lanzhou railway and Lanzhou-Urumqi railway transects, the Yangtze River transect, the border of north China transect, 106 National Road transect, and the eastern coastal transect. There are many factors affecting county urbanization, mainly including economic development stage, the level of secondary and tertiary industries, rural net income per capita, population density, leading position of grain production, demographic statistics and special arrangements for counties. The high county urbanization in northern border regions was a typical type of statistical unrealistically high urbanization. In the future county urbanization development should follow the geographical differences, highlight its leading function, and adopt multiple urbanization development models such as promoting urbanization intensively in key urban economic development areas, separating urbanization in cropland and grain producing areas, migrating urbanization in ecological and water resource protection areas, suburban areas and urban-based urbanization and other leading county urbanization patterns.

Key words: county urbanization, rural development, regional differences, transect, formation mechanism, China