地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (7): 971-984.doi: 10.11821/xb201207010

• 环境化学 • 上一篇    下一篇

日照市土壤重金属来源解析及环境风险评价

吕建树1,2, 张祖陆2, 刘洋3, 代杰瑞4, 王学2, 王茂香2   

  1. 1. 南京大学海岸与海岛开发教育部重点实验室, 南京210093;
    2. 山东师范大学人口·资源与环境学院, 济南250014;
    3. 南京大学环境学院污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京2100464;
    4. 山东省地质调查院, 济南250013
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-05 修回日期:2012-04-15 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-10-11
  • 通讯作者: 张祖陆(1949-), 男, 上海嘉定人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110002606M), 主要从事综合自然地理学研究。E-mail: zulzhang@126.com E-mail:zulzhang@126.com
  • 作者简介:吕建树(1986-), 男, 山东莱芜人, 博士研究生, 中国地理学会会员(S110007947M), 主要从事环境地理学研究。E-mail: lvjianshu@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41101079); 山东省自然科学基金项目(Y2008E13)

Sources Identification and Hazardous Risk Delineation of Heavy Metals Contamination in Rizhao City

LÜ Jianshu1,2, ZHANG Zulu2, LIU Yang3, DAI Jeirui4, WANG Xue2, WANG Maoxiang2   

  1. 1. The Key Laboratory of Coast and Island Development of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. College of Population, Resource and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China;
    3. State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China;
    4. Shandong Institute of Geological Survey, Jinan 250013, China
  • Received:2012-03-05 Revised:2012-04-15 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-10-11
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41101079; Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, No.Y2008E13

摘要: 选择日照市的东港区和岚山区为研究区, 采集了445 个0~20 cm表层土壤样品, 并测定了10 种重金属元素的含量;采用多元统计和地统计分析, 揭示了研究区土壤重金属污染的主要来源以及与土地利用、成土母质之间的关系, 绘制了重金属的环境风险概率的空间分布图。结果表明:① As、Co、Cr 和Cu 的平均值低于山东省东部地区土壤背景值, Cd、Hg、Mn、Ni、Pb 和Zn 的平均值高于背景值, 尤其是Cd、Hg 的含量分别为背景值的1.85 和1.38倍, 土壤中重金属累积较为明显。② 10 种元素可被辩识出4 个主成分(PCs), PC1 (Co、Cr、Mn、Ni 和Zn) 和PC3 (As、Cu) 为自然源因子, PC2 (Cd、Pb) 为工农业及交通源因子, PC4(Hg) 为工业源因子;其中Pb、Zn在PC1 和PC3 上均有较大载荷, 受地质背景和人类活动的共同控制。③ Cd、Hg 含量在不同的覆被类型有显著差异, 在城镇建设用地的含量最高;Co、Cr、Cu、Mn和Ni 在花岗岩和变质岩母质的含量高, 与冲积与海积物母质有较大差异。④ 来自于同一主成分的元素及元素组合的环境风险空间格局与相应主成分插值结果基本一致, 所有重金属综合环境风险的高值区在西部和东部呈点状分布, 主要是由西部的高地质背景和东部的强烈人为干扰的综合作用造成的。

关键词: 重金属风险, 多元统计, 指示克里格, 重金属来源解析, 日照市

Abstract: A total of 445 surface soils samples were collected at the nodes of a 2×2 km grid from Rizhao City and analyzed for 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Sources of heavy metals pollutant and the differences of contents among various land use types and parent material were revealed by multivariate analysis; meanwhile, spatial distribution of hazardous risk from heavy metals contamination was given by geostatistics based on GIS. The results are shown as follows. (1) The mean concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Cu were lower than the background values (BV) in eastern Shandong Province, respectively; but those of Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn exceeded the BV, especially for Cd and Hg (1.85 and 1.38 times of BV, respectively), indicating distinct accumulations of some heavy metals in soils of Rizhao City. (2) A total of 10 heavy metals could be classified as 4 Principal Components (PCs), including PC1 (Co, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn), PC2 (Cd, Pb), PC3 (As, Cu), and PC4 (Hg). PC1 and PC3 were the factors dominated by natural sources, PC2 represented the factors from industrial, agricultural and traffic sources, and PC4 was contributed by industrial sources. Pb and Zn with a high load in different PCs might originate from the mixed sources including anthropogenic and natural sources. (3) There were significant differences in Cd and Hg contents among various land cover types with the highest level in urban areas. The concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni in the soils from weathered granite and metamorphic rock were all higher than those in the soils from alluvial and marine deposits. (4) The single element, elements integration and the corresponding PC presented similar spatial patterns of hazardous risk. The high risk regions with comprehensive assessment on all elements were located in densely-populated urban areas and western study area, which was attributed to the higher geological background in the western part and strong human interference in the eastern part.

Key words: environmental risk of heavy metals, multivariate analysis, Indicator Kriging, heavy metals sources identification, Rizhao city