地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (7): 903-916.doi: 10.11821/xb201207004

• 环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

全新世以来浙江地区史前文化对环境变化的响应

吴立1, 朱诚1, 郑朝贵2, 李枫1, 马春梅1, 孙伟1, 李溯源3, 水涛3, 王鑫浩2, 邵仕训2, 周曜2, 何婷婷2   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京210093;
    2. 滁州学院地理信息与旅游学系, 滁州239000;
    3. 南京大学历史学系, 南京210093
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-25 修回日期:2012-04-18 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-10-11
  • 通讯作者: 朱诚(1954-), 男, 安徽歙县人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110002572M), 主要研究方向为地貌与第四纪环境。E-mail: zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn E-mail:zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn
  • 作者简介:吴立(1985-), 男, 浙江海宁人, 博士研究生, 中国地理学会会员(S110008501M), 主要研究方向为全球变化与第四纪环境考古。E-mail: jedi-wuli@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41171163; 40971115); 教育部“985 工程”专项南京大学研究生科研创新基金项目(2011CL11); 国家科技支撑计划项目(2010BAK67B02); 国家社会科学基金重大项目(11&ZD183); 教育部高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金项目(20090091110036); 中国科学院地球环境研究所黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLLGG0817); 南京大学大型贵重仪器设备开放测试基金项目(0422171010);江苏高校优势学科建设工程基金项目(PAPD)

Response of Prehistoric Culture to Climatic Environmental Changes since Holocene in Zhejiang, East China

WU Li1, ZHU Cheng1, ZHENG Chaogui2, LI Feng1, MA Chunmei1, SUN Wei1, Li Suyuan3, SHUI Tao3, WANG Xinhao2, SHAO Shixun2, ZHOU Yao2, HE Tingting2   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Geographic Information and Tourism College, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000, Anhui, China;
    3. School of History, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2012-03-25 Revised:2012-04-18 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-10-11
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171163; No.40971115; Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Nanjing University, Project 985, No.2011CL11; National Key Technology R&D Program of China, No.2010BAK67B02; Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11&ZD183; University Doctoral Foundation of China, No.20090091110036; Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, No.SKLLQG0817; Open Testing Foundation of Large Valuable Equipments, Nanjing University, No.0422171010; Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD)

摘要: 对浙江地区史前文化的时空分布进行比较研究, 发现4000 cal. a BP前本区史前文化遗址在空间上不断扩大, 较为显著的扩大曾发生过两次, 一次发生在马家浜—河姆渡文化时期, 另一次发生在良渚文化时期;同时以河流谷地为通道, 史前文化从西向东不断向沿海扩展。4000 cal. a BP后, 以马桥文化为代表的各史前文化地域明显收缩, 东向沿海扩散的趋势终止, 同时伴随有南北两种不同模式的生产方式和经济形态转变。浙江地区史前文化分布与全新世海面波动有显著的关系, 尤其是杭州湾两岸的史前文化遗址分布与海面变化的关系最密切, 7000 cal. a BP 以来的低海面—海退成陆过程为史前居民提供了广阔的陆地生存空间。浙江地区史前文化变迁与环境变化在时相上具有一致性, 对比天目山千亩田泥炭和东海内陆架泥质沉积的环境演变记录表明, 4000 cal. a BP前浙江地区史前文化的东向地域扩展是在全新世气候适宜期背景下进行的, 是农业文明和海洋文明共同作用下的扩展和延伸;而4000cal. a BP后史前文化的地域收缩是在气候干冷和沿海海洋环境恶化的背景下发生的。以上初步证明浙江地区史前文化的发展、扩张和收缩与环境变化呈显著的正相关, 而气候环境变化正是引起上述这种变化以及生产方式和经济形态变化的深层次原因。因此, 气候环境成为浙江史前文化变迁的重要影响因子, 其对文化的分布、传播、扩展和演变等都产生了重要影响。

关键词: 浙江地区, 环境演变, 史前文化, 全新世

Abstract: This paper conducts comparative studies on the distribution of prehistoric cultural sites of Zhejiang Province. The results show that Zhejiang prehistoric culture expanded gradually in this region before 4000 cal. a BP. The notable expansions occurred twice and at the same time the prehistoric culture was disseminated from west to east coast along the river valleys. After 4000 cal. a BP, prehistoric cultural sites-distributed region contracted obviously due to the termination of spreading trend to east coast, which was accompanied by two kinds of economic transitions of Zhejiang. The distribution of prehistoric cultural sites was closely related with sea level fluctuation in Holocene, especially on the banks of the Hangzhou Bay. The changes of prehistoric culture and the climatic environment are identical to each other. It is evidenced that the development, expansion and contraction of prehistoric culture are positively correlated to the climatic environmental change. The change of climatic environment is just the root cause for this change and transition of the economic formation. So the climatic environment is the dominant factor of the Zhejiang prehistoric culture vicissitudes, which has exerted great influence on distribution, dissemination, expansion and transmutation of the culture.

Key words: Zhejiang, environmental change, prehistoric culture, Holocene