地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (7): 867-877.doi: 10.11821/xb201207001

• 地理信息系统 •    下一篇

GIS作为新一代地理学语言的特征

胡最1,2, 汤国安1, 闾国年1   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室, 南京210046;
    2. 衡阳师范学院资源环境与旅游管理系, 湖南衡阳421008
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-12 修回日期:2012-04-02 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-10-11
  • 通讯作者: 汤国安(1961-), 男, 浙江宁波人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110003080M), 主要从事GIS研究。E-mail: tangguoan@njnu.edu.cn E-mail:tangguoan@njnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:胡最(1977-), 男, 湖南宁乡人, 博士生, 衡阳师范学院讲师, 主要从事GIS研究。E-mail: fuyanghuzui@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40930531); “资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室”开放基金项目(2010KF0002SA); 湖南省人文地理重点建设学科项目

The Concept and Characteristics of GIS Language

HU Zui1,2, TANG Guo'an1, LU Guonian1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210046, China;
    2. Department of Resources & Environment and Tourism Management, Hengyang 421008, Hunan, China
  • Received:2012-02-12 Revised:2012-04-02 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-10-11
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40930531;Opening Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System of China, No.2010KF0002SA; Key Constructive Disciplines Projects of Human Geography in Hunan Province

摘要: 地理学语言是人类理解、研究、表达与传播地理信息的重要工具, 它随着人类科学技术的进步与认识水平的提高而不断演进。本文根据地理学语言在结构、功能及其特征方面所发生的变化, 结合地理信息本体论、认知论和语言学理论, 总结了GIS 语言的定义与基本属性, 阐述了GIS作为新一代地理学语言的本质特征、结构、功能以及内容体系, 明确了其在地理学研究中的地位与作用。GIS语言实现了地理对象的语义定义、特征抽象、行为表达和时空运算处理过程的高度统一, 是地理学语言的高级形态;通过分析GIS 语言所具有的抽象性、系统性、严密性、确切性、层次性等基本特征。认为GIS语言的概念与体系结构的形成, 将推动地理学及地理信息科学的发展。文中从数字技术的影响、学科范式的转变、发展导向和地理表达能力四个方面对GIS语言的研究作了展望。

关键词: GIS, 语言, 概念模型, 本体论

Abstract: Language plays an important role in communication, sharing and conveying information for human beings. GIS language is very important in understanding, researching, representing and transmitting geographical information. It gradually evolves and develops with promotion of the science and technology progress and cognition level. Concerning with the theoretical progresses from the geographical information ontology, espistemology and linguistic theory, this paper firstly proposes the conception and basic features of GIS language according to the geographical language's changes in language structure, function and characteristics. GIS language could be regarded as a synthetic and digital symbolic system. It is a comprehensive representation of geographical objects, phenomenon and their spatial distribution and dynamic processes. This representation helps us to generate a universal perception of geography space by the geographical scenarios or symbols with geometry, status, processes, temporal-spatial relationship, semantic and attribution features. Furthermore, this paper states that GIS language is a new generation geographical language by its intrinsic characteristics, structure, functions and systematic content. As the former's theoretical foundation, the paper definitely illustrates the important status and contributions of the GIS language to geographical researches. All in all, GIS language is the new geographical language with some new features including temporal-spatial multi-dimension representation, interactive visualization, virtual geographical scenario, multi-sensor sensing, expediently broadcasting with web, in current new era.
GIS language is the highest level of geographical language because it integrates the semantic definition, features extraction, geographical dynamic representation and temporal-spatial unifying computation of geographical objects. GIS language have five important characteristics: abstraction, systemization, strictness, definition and hierarchical structure. In summary, GIS language provides a new tool for the recognition, understanding and simulation of the whole geographical environments. So, the exploration of GIS language's function in contemporary geographical development becomes increasingly important. Meanwhile, the construction of the conceptual model and scientific systems of GIS language will promote the development of geography discipline and geographical information sciences. Therefore, the paper forecasts the GIS language's future development from the viewpoints of digital technologies, geography norm, geography discipline development and geographical modeling.

Key words: GIS, language, conceptual model, ontology