地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (6): 783-792.doi: 10.11821/xb201206006

• 农村发展与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

欠发达区地理环境对专业村发展的影响研究

李小建1,3, 周雄飞2, 郑纯辉1, Scott Rozelle4   

  1. 1. 河南财经政法大学资源与环境科学系, 郑州450002;
    2. 河南财经政法大学经济学院,郑州450002;
    3. 河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心, 河南开封475001;
    4. 美国斯坦福大学食品安全和环境研究中心, CA 94305
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-15 修回日期:2012-03-12 出版日期:2012-06-20 发布日期:2012-08-13
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071082)

Development of Specialized Villages in Various Environments of Less Developed China

LI Xiaojian1,3, ZHOU Xiongfei2, ZHENG Chunhui1, Scott ROZELLE4   

  1. 1. Department of Resourses and Enviroment, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450002, China;
    2. Institute of Economics, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450002, China;
    3. Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China;
    4. Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
  • Received:2011-11-15 Revised:2012-03-12 Online:2012-06-20 Published:2012-08-13
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071082

摘要: 基于经济学和地理学中的“理性小农”、“劳动分工与专业化”和“距离衰减与邻里效应”理论,并考虑资源环境条件,建立了解释专业村形成机理和形成类型的理论框架。用数理方法推理了村产业结构的发展变化和专业村的形成。在理论分析的基础上,运用2010 年河南省的专业村数据,选择地形、区位、土地和劳动力等环境变量和16 类专业村的虚拟变量,使用最小二乘法进行回归,结果表明村环境资源条件对专业化率有显著影响:① 村劳动力资源越多,专业化率越低;② 村土地越多越利于专业化生产;③ 村离县级市距离越近,越有利于形成农产品加工专业村;④ 具有批发市场可以提高所有专业村的专业化率,对养殖业和加工业专业村更是如此;⑤如果其他环境相同,丘陵地区的专业化率比其他地区低;这主要与丘陵地区交通条件不畅、人均耕地较少等有关。采用定性模型分析表明:环境影响在不同类别的专业村有所不同。土地丰裕程度对茶叶、林业和水果种植等类专业村形成有正面影响,劳动力资源对花卉等专业村的形成产生影响;地域通达性对水果、蔬菜和花卉等时鲜产品专业村的形成产生正面影响。该研究结果的实践引申,在不同环境条件的地区,可以制定相应的适宜专业化发展的引导政策。

关键词: 专业村, 农区专业化, 农区发展, 环境条件, 河南

Abstract: Theoretical framework on formation of specialized villages was proposed by using rational small household, division of labour and specialization and distance decay and neighbourhood affect theories. These theories from economics and geography determined the formation of specialized villages, but the types of the specialization are related to resources endeavor and environmental conditions of the villages. The paper illustrates the change of the economic structure of villages by applying mathematical models, stating that various geographical conditions surrounding a village leads to different marginal production efficiency, therefore forming specified production structure. If a village's environment proves suitable for certain production or service, then a relevant type of specialized village may emerge. Based on theoretical analysis, we use the census data of specialized villages in Henan Province in 2010, applying dummy variables representing 16 types of specialized villages, and selecting environmental variables such as landform, location, arable land area and labour force from a spatial database from government authorities. The regression results from the OLS models indicate a significant impact of village environmental conditions on village specialization: (1) more labour force leads to lower specialization; (2) abundant arable land benefits specialization; (3) the closer location to its county site results in higher probability of specialization on agricultural processing industry; (4) existence of a wholesale market may increase specialization on relevant villages, especially for agricultural processing and animal husbandry industries; (5) the villages located in hilly terrain show less probability on specialization than others, mainly caused by difficulties in transportation and shortage in arable land; while mountainous environment provides resources for the development of specialization. Results from qualitative models indicate diverse environmental impact in different types of specialized villages. Positive impacts of land availability are observed in tea plantation, tree nursery and fruit farm. Labour force assists the formation of labour intensive production such as floristry. Accessibility benefits specialization in fruit, vegetable production and floristry. Results of this study can be applied to policy making for guidance of specialization under various environmental conditions.

Key words: specialized villages, rural specialization, rural development, environmental condition, Henan