地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (6): 733-744.doi: 10.11821/xb201206002

• 交通与碳循环研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于GPS数据的城市居民通勤弹性研究——以北京市郊区巨型社区为例

申悦, 柴彦威   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-19 修回日期:2012-02-09 出版日期:2012-06-20 发布日期:2012-08-13
  • 通讯作者: 柴彦威(1964-), 男, 甘肃会宁人, 北京大学城市与经济地理系副系主任, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110000358M)。主要研究方向为时间地理学、社会地理学、城市与区域规划。E-mail: chyw@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    2009 年IBM共享大学研究项目;“十二五”国家科技支撑计划课题(2012BAJ05B04)

Study on Commuting Flexibility of Residents Based on GPS Data: A Case Study of Suburban Mega-communities in Beijing

SHEN Yue, CHAI Yanwei   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2011-07-19 Revised:2012-02-09 Online:2012-06-20 Published:2012-08-13
  • Supported by:
    2009 IBM Shared University Research Project; 12th Five-year National Science supported planning Project, No. 2012BAJ05B04

摘要: 通勤是居民出行行为的重要组成部分,受到地理、规划、交通等领域的广泛关注,已有对通勤的研究多利用问卷调查数据,定位技术与信息通信技术为个体行为时空数据的采集带来了新的契机。本研究关注个体在不同工作日中通勤的可变性,将活动弹性的概念引入对通勤行为的研究中,提出通勤弹性的概念,并界定了时间、空间、方式、路径4 个通勤弹性维度,通过探讨4 种弹性之间的相互作用关系,提出7 种基于弹性的理论通勤模式。研究以北京市天通苑与亦庄两个郊区巨型社区为案例,基于活动日志与GPS 定位数据相结合的为期一周的居民时空行为数据,分别利用传统方法和通勤弹性视角研究居民的通勤特征,验证通勤弹性现象的存在以及该视角透视城市居民通勤行为的合理性,并利用GIS 三维可视化技术对7 种理论通勤模式居民的活动—移动时空特征进行刻画,从而透视北京市郊区巨型社区居民的通勤特征及复杂模式,为北京市城市与交通问题的解决提供了独特的视角。

关键词: GPS, 通勤弹性, 通勤模式, 三维可视化, 北京

Abstract: Commuting is one of the most important parts of travel behavior, which has been widely studied by geographers, planners and transportation researchers based on questionnaire data, and the rapid development of location-based technologies and ICTs bring new opportunities for deep insight of commuting with tracking data. The study focuses on variability in commuting behavior in different weekdays, introduces the concept of activity flexibility and brings forward a concept of commuting flexibility. Four dimensions, i.e., time, space, travel mode and route choice, are used to define the concept of commuting flexibility, and seven theoretical commuting patterns are put forward according to discussion on the relationship between four dimensions of commuting flexibility. The study takes two suburban mega-communities in Beijing, i.e., Tiantongyuan and Yizhuang, as study cases. It collects seven days of space-time data of individual behaviors through a web-based survey, which is a combination of activity-travel dairies and GPS tacking data. On the basis of the analysis of commuting behavior, the study explores measures and characteristics of four types of commuting flexibility and represents the activity-travel trajectories in a 3-D GIS environment. The concept of commuting flexibility proves to be effective and reasonable for a better understanding of complicated commuting behaviors of Beijing's residents. The study also provides a special perspective for Beijing's urban and transportation problems.

Key words: GPS, commuting flexibility, commuting pattern, 3-D visualization, Beijing