地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (5): 710-718.doi: 10.11821/xb201205013

• 水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

甘肃黄土高原土壤水分变化对冬小麦产量的影响

蒲金涌1,2, 王润元1, 李晓薇3, 张谋草4   

  1. 1. 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所, 中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾开放实验室, 甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室, 兰州730020;
    2. 天水市气象局, 甘肃天水741000;
    3. 仲恺农业工程学院环境科学与工程学院, 广州510550;
    4. 甘肃西峰农业气象试验站, 甘肃西峰745000
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-23 修回日期:2012-02-16 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-07-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技部公益行业科研专项(GYHY201106029)

Impact of Soil Water Variations on Wheat Yields on the Loess Plateau of Gansu

PU Jinyong1,2, WANG Runyuan1, LI Xiaowei3, ZHANG Moucao4   

  1. 1. Lanzhou Institute of Arid Meteorology, Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climate Change and Reducing Disaster, China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Arid Climate Change and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    2. Tianhsui Meteorological Bureau, Tianshui 741000, Gansu, China;
    3. Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Technology, Guangzhou 510550, China;
    4. The Agrometeorological Experiment Station of Xifeng, Xifeng 745000, Gansu, China
  • Received:2011-12-23 Revised:2012-02-16 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-07-20
  • Supported by:
    Public Welfare Industry Special Item of National Science Technology Department, No.GYHY201106029

摘要: 甘肃黄土高原属半干旱和半湿润气候过渡区。潜在蒸散量大于降水量,土壤水是影响冬小麦生产最直接因素。运用甘肃西峰农业气象试验站1981-2010 年冬小麦大田试验及土壤湿度观测资料,对近30 年土壤水变化规律及与冬小麦各产量要素的关系进行分析。结果表明,冬小麦贮水量最大时段为冬前生长期,其次为返青期至拔节期,最小为孕穗期至成熟期。耗水量最大时段为孕穗期至成熟期,其次为冬前生长阶段,最小为返青期至拔节期。1981-2010年土壤100 cm土层、1990-2010 年200 cm土层贮水量呈减少趋势,耗水量呈增加趋势。冬小麦土壤水分利用率呈上升趋势,变化转折点出现在1998 年。200 cm、100 cm土层贮水量与冬小麦不孕小穗率相关性显著。不同生长阶段各层次土壤贮水量均与千粒重相关性显著,且随着深度加深,相关性愈加显著。冬前生长阶段、返青期至拔节期各深度层次土壤贮水量与单株成穗数相关性分别通过0.1、0.01 信度水平检验。在冬小麦各生长阶段,各层次土壤贮水量与单产相关性显著。5 月中旬100 cm 土层贮水量对产量影响较大,aj(t) 值达20 kg/hm2·mm。不孕小穗率与不同生长阶段100 cm土层耗水量均呈显著负相关关系。千粒重与冬前生长阶段的各深度层次耗水量相关性显著。单株成穗数与返青期至拔节期上层土壤耗水量相关性显著。单产与孕穗期至成熟期各层次耗水量相关性显著。从当年9 月到次年5 月100 cm土层耗水量对单产影响逐渐增大,5 月中旬aj(t) 达25 kg/hm2·mm。此后耗水量对产量的影响逐渐降低。

关键词: 甘肃黄土高原, 土壤水, 变化特征, 产量因素, 影响

Abstract: Based on the data of wheat fields and soil moisture at the Xifeng Agrometerological Experiment Station from 1981 to 2010, the variation law of soil water and the relationship between the yield factors and soil water were discussed. The results showed that the maximum soil water storage occurred in growth stage before winter, followed by reviving to jointing stage, and the minimum in booting to mature stage. The maximum soil water consumption was observed in booting to mature stage, followed by growth stage before winter, and the minimum in reviving to jointing stage. It is also shown that the soil water storage at depths of 200 cm and 100 cm decreased and water consumption at depths of 200 cm and 100 cm increased with trend of fluctuations. The utilization efficiency of soil water increased in a linear trend and the turning point occurred in 1998. There is significant relationship between the infertility spikelet rate and soil water storage at depths of 200 cm and 100 cm. The correlation between soil water storage in different layers and TKW (thousand kernel weight) can be estimated through the method of hypothesis testing, and the deeper the layer of soil water storage, the higher the correlation coefficient was. The correlation between ear number and soil water storage in different layers in growth stage before winter and the period of reviving to jointing could pass 0.1 and 0.01 reliability testing respectively. The soil water storage in different layers in growth period and actual yields in test field were correlated prominently. The value of aj(t) was 20 kg in 1 ha at a depth of 1 mm in soil water during the second ten days in May. There is negative correlation between water consumption at 100 cm depth and infertility spikelet rate. The TKW and water consumption in different soil layers was closely correlated.

Key words: Loess Plateau in Gansu, soil water, variation, yield factors, influence