地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (5): 689-698.doi: 10.11821/xb201205011

• 水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

可可西里地区库赛湖变化及湖水外溢成因

姚晓军1,2, 刘时银2, 孙美平2, 郭万钦2, 张晓1   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州730070;
    2. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-03 修回日期:2012-03-18 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-20
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-Q03-04); 全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划项目(2010CB951401); 国家自然科学基金(41071044); 西北师范大学青年教师科研能力提升计划项目(NWNU-LKQN-10-35)

Changes of Kusai Lake in Hoh Xil Region and Causes of Its Water Overflowing

YAO Xiaojun1,2, LIU Shiyin2, SUN Meiping2, GUO Wanqin2, ZHANG Xiao1   

  1. 1. Geography and Environment College, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2012-02-03 Revised:2012-03-18 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-20
  • Supported by:
    CAS Knowledge Innovation Program, No.KZCX2-YW-Q03-04; National Great Scientific Research Plan Project of Global Change, No.2010CB951401; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071044; Youth Teacher Scientific Capability Promoting Project of Northwest Normal University, No.NWNU-LKQN-10-35

摘要: 以库赛湖研究区地形图、Landsat TM/ETM+和中国环境与灾害监测预报卫星HJ1A/BCCD影像为基础,结合五道梁气象站气温降水资料,利用地理信息技术和数理统计方法,对2011 年9 月可可西里地区库赛湖湖水外溢成因进行分析。结果表明,库赛湖湖水外溢发生在2011 年9 月20 日至30 日期间,卓乃湖湖水进入库赛湖是后者发生变化的直接原因,而库赛湖规模近20 年来的持续增长,尤其是2006 年之后湖泊面积快速增加是其湖水外溢的基础。卓乃湖湖水外泄的主要诱因是区域持续降水,其中8 月17 日和21 日强降水使卓乃湖于8 月22 日出现漫顶溢流,8 月31 日至9 月5 日、9 月16 日至17 日期间两次持续降水导致卓乃湖水量剧增,并在9 月14 日至21 日期间形成洪水。由于水量外泄,卓乃湖面积骤降,截至11 月29 日,湖泊面积168.07 km2,仅为8 月22 日湖泊面积的62%,共减少104.88 km2。库赛湖外溢湖水流入海丁诺尔后又进入盐湖,其中海丁诺尔湖水进入盐湖时间介于10 月6 日至20 日期间。外来湖水大量进入导致海丁诺尔和盐湖在10-11月份快速扩大。

关键词: 湖水外溢, 湖泊变化, 库赛湖, 卓乃湖, 可可西里

Abstract: Based on topographic maps, Landsat TM/ETM+ images, China Environment and Hazards Monitoring and Prediction Satellite (HJ1A/B) CCD images and meteorological materials observed at Wudaoliang meteorological station, we explore the change causes of Kusai Lake using geographical information techniques and mathematical statistics method. The results show that water overflowing Kusai Lake occurred in September 20-30 in 2011, and the direct reason was the flood from Zhuonai Lake flowing into Kusai Lake. In addition, Kusai Lake has been growing in recent decades; especially after 2006 it experienced a quick increase that formed the foundation of lake water overflow. The main factor resulting in the flood from Zhuonai Lake was the steady precipitation. Specifically, the heavy precipitation on August 17 and 21 made Zhuonai Lake water outflow on August 22, 2011; then continuous precipitation during August 31 to September 9, 16 and 17 subsequently formed a serious flood from September 14 to 21. Accordingly, there was a sudden drop in area of Zhuonai Lake. As of November 29, the lake decreased to 168.07 km2 (a reduction of by 104.88 km2), accounting for 62% of the area on August 22. The outflow water from Kusai Lake flowed into Haidingnuoer Lake, then into Yanhu Lake. The latter occurred during October 6-20. Due to sudden rapid flow, both Haidingnuoer and Yanhu lakes suffered a quick expansion from October to November, 2011.

Key words: water overflowing, lake change, Kusai Lake, Zhuonai Lake, Hoh Xil