地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (5): 609-620.doi: 10.11821/xb201205004

• 人地关系 • 上一篇    下一篇

近百年来人类活动对鸭绿江口河床演变的影响

程岩1, 刘月1, 高建华2, 张春鹏1, 李富祥1,3, 刘敬伟1, 张亮1   

  1. 1. 辽东学院城市建设学院, 辽宁丹东118003;
    2. 南京大学海岸与海岛开发教育部重点实验室, 南京210093;
    3. 辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院, 辽宁大连116029
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-30 修回日期:2012-02-03 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘月(1972-), 女, 辽宁锦州人, 副教授, 研究方向为河口生态与环境。E-mail: moonliudd@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40871019; 40976051)

Influence of Human Activities on the Riverbed Evolution in Yalu River Estuary during Recent One Century

CHENG Yan1, LIU Yue1, GAO Jianhua2, ZHANG Chunpeng1, LI Fuxiang1,3, LIU Jingwei1, ZHANG Liang1   

  1. 1. Urban Construction College, Eastern Liaoning University, Dandong 118003, Liaoning, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Coast and Island Development of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    3. College of Urban and Environment Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2011-07-30 Revised:2012-02-03 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40871019; No.40976051

摘要: 本文以鸭绿江口西汊道连续性较好、时间分辨率较高、以海湾性质为主的2 处现代沉积物为样本,对其沉积速率、粒度特征、碎屑矿物、重金属进行了测定和分析。柱状样记录了1920 年以来西汊道上游的沉积过程,平均沉积速率约为0.98 cm/a,粒度参数、指示性碎屑矿物、重金属的垂向分布显示出这里的沉积是以海相河口湾沉积为主,但交替存在河流沉积。通过与前期研究成果的比较,揭示了近百年来人类活动对鸭绿江口河床演变的影响。其中,兴修水利对河床演变的影响集中在早期,并带来了河床地貌的重大改变,西汊道失去了河流主汊道的地位;围垦带来的河床演变出现在中期,对河床地貌的影响也很深刻,表现为陆域面积不断扩大,水域面积不断缩小;航道治理等人类活动对河床演变的影响出现在中后期,河床地貌没有明显的改变;最近的人类活动影响有待观察。

关键词: 鸭绿江口, 人类活动, 河床演变

Abstract: The two cores of modern sediments lying in the West-branch-way of Yalu River estuary is characterized by better continuity, higher time resolution and most gulf sediments. The deposition rate, grain characteristics, detrital minerals and heavy metals were measured and analyzed. The depositing process from 1920 with an average rate of 0.98 cm/a in the upstream of West-branch-way was recorded in the core. The vertical distribution of grain parameters, indicative detrital minerals and heavy metals shows that the sediments were mainly from the estuarine deposit of marine phase alternated with the deposit of fluvial phase. In comparison with previous studies, the result reveals the impact of human activities on the riverbed evolution in Yalu River estuary during recent 100 years. The influence of water conservancy projects was mainly in the early period, which led to a great change in riverbed landform. The evolution caused by land reclamation occurred in the middle period and it also exerted a significant effect on riverbed landform and made the terrestrial area bigger and water area smaller continuously. The influence of human activities such as waterway regulation appeared in the middle and late period, during which there was no obvious change in the riverbed landform. The influence of latest human activities needs to be further studied.

Key words: Yalu River estuary, human activities, riverbed evolution