地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (5): 599-608.doi: 10.11821/xb201205003

• 人地关系 • 上一篇    下一篇

梯田建设和淤地坝淤积对土壤侵蚀影响的定量分析

高海东1, 李占斌1,2, 李鹏2, 贾莲莲3, 张翔2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院、水利部水土保持研究所, 杨凌712100;
    2. 西安理工大学西北水资源与环境生态教育部重点实验室, 西安710048;
    3. 水利部黄河水利委员会黄河上中游管理局, 西安710021
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-13 修回日期:2012-02-21 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 李占斌, 男, 河南镇平人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 研究方向为土壤侵蚀与水土保持。E-mail: zbli@ms.iswc.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973 计划) 项目(2011CB403302); 国家自然科学基金项目(40971161;41071182)

Influences of Terrace Construction and Check Dam Silting-up on Soil Erosion

GAO Haidong1, LI Zhanbin1,2, LI Peng2, JIA Lianlian3, ZHANG Xiang2   

  1. 1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China;
    2. Key Lab of Northwest Water Resources and Environment Ecology of Ministry of Education, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China;
    3. Upper and Middle Yellow River Bureau, Yellow River Conservancy Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources, Xi'an 710021, China
  • Received:2011-11-13 Revised:2012-02-21 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-07-20
  • Supported by:

    National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2011CB403302; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971161; No.41071182

摘要: 为了研究梯田建设和淤地坝淤积对流域土壤侵蚀的影响,本文首先建立了包含梯田、坡耕地、陡坡草地以及坝地在内的黄土高原丘陵沟壑区流域简化模型,并定义了流域的先锋期、过渡期以及顶级期三个状态,使用修正通用土壤流失方程(RUSLE) 分析了不同时期的流域土壤侵蚀模数。结果显示:先锋期与顶级期是流域水土保持治理的极限状态,先锋期峁边线上部土壤侵蚀模数为299.56 t×hm-2×a-1,下部土壤侵蚀模数为136.64 t×hm-2×a-1,平均侵蚀模数为229.74 t×hm-2×a-1;顶级期峁边线上部土壤侵蚀模数为39.10 t×hm-2×a-1,下部土壤侵蚀模数为1.10 t×hm-2×a-1,平均侵蚀模数为22.81 t×hm-2×a-1;在过渡期,随着梯田面积比例的增加,峁边线上部土壤侵蚀模数呈指数减少,而随着淤积高度的增加,峁边线下部土壤侵蚀模数呈线性减少,文章最后对这一结论进行了实证分析。

关键词: 水土保持, 黄土高原, 修正通用土壤流失方程, 演替

Abstract: To research the terrace construction and check dam silting-up soil erosion effects, this paper firstly established a generalized model consisting of terrace, slope land, steep slope grassland, and check dam land in hilly and gully region of Loess Plateau, defined the pioneer phase, transitional phase and climax phase. Then it used the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to analyze soil erosion modulus in different periods. The results showed that pioneer phase and climax phase are the limit state of soil and water conservation. In pioneer phase, soil erosion modulus is 299.56 t×hm-2×a-1 and 136.64 t×hm-2×a-1 in the upper and lower parts of demarcation of hill and gully slope, respectively, and the average erosion modulus is 229.74 t×hm-2×a-1. In climax phase, soil erosion modulus is 39. 10 t×hm-2×a-1 and 1.10 t×hm-2×a-1 in the upper and lower parts, and the average erosion modulus is 22.81 t×hm-2×a-1. In the transitional phase, with the increase of the ratio of the terrace, soil erosion modulus index is reduced at upper Mao sideline; with the increase of the sedimentation of the height, soil erosion modulus shows a linear decrease at lower Mao sideline.

Key words: soil and water conservation, Loess Plateau, RUSLE, succession