地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (4): 516-525.doi: 10.11821/xb201204008

• 土地利用与乡村发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

江苏省乡村聚落的形态分异及地域类型

马晓冬1, 李全林2, 沈一1   

  1. 1. 江苏师范大学区域与城市研究中心, 徐州 221009;
    2. 宿迁学院, 宿迁 223800
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-20 修回日期:2012-01-08 出版日期:2012-04-20 发布日期:2012-06-11
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071116); 教育部人文社科项目(09YJC790225)

Morphological Difference and Regional Types of Rural Settlements in Jiangsu Province

MA Xiaodong1, LI Quanlin2, SHEN Yi1   

  1. 1. Regional and Urban Research Center, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221009, Jiangsu, China;
    2. Suqian College, Suqian 223800, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2011-09-20 Revised:2012-01-08 Online:2012-04-20 Published:2012-06-11
  • Supported by:
    National NaturalScience Foundation of China, No.41071116; MOE Layout Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences,No.09YJC790225

摘要: 基于江苏省2007/2008 年SPOT卫星影像,运用探索性空间数据分析、空间韵律测度等模型,定量分析了江苏省乡村聚落形态的空间分异特征,并进一步划分了地域类型.结果表明,在空间分布上,江苏省乡村聚落的集聚特征较为明显,但存在明显的空间差异性,具体表现为由沿江地区依次向北、向南呈阶梯状稀疏化分布,其整体分布与地貌类型具有较高的相关性;在规模上,江苏省乡村聚落的规模普遍偏小,小村庄的规模差距较小,规模大的村庄比重小但是差距大;乡村聚落规模分布具有低值集聚的特征,并且呈现出明显的“哑铃状”结构,即江苏北部地区和南部地区乡村聚落规模较大,而中部地区乡村聚落规模较小.在形态格局空间变化上,通过苏北、苏中、苏南地区和沿海与沿运河地区的5 条样带的格局指数测度,发现苏中地区的乡村聚落形态复杂程度高于苏北和苏南地区,沿海地区的高于沿运河地区;苏南、沿运河地区的乡村聚落具有较好的连接性;5 条样带的乡村聚落规模分异均比较明显.最后,通过构建乡村聚落形态测度指标体系,采用系统聚类的方法,将江苏省乡村聚落划分为8 种类型:徐连岗岭低密度大团块型、宿淮平原中密度宽带型、沿海垦区高密度条带型、苏中圩区中密度弧带型、江南平原中密度小团块型、湖荡岗地低密度散点型、宁眙丘陵团簇状散布型、里下河低密度团簇型.

关键词: 乡村聚落, 形态与规模, 空间格局, 地域类型, 江苏省

Abstract: Based on the SPOT satellite images of Jiangsu Province in 2007/2008, using models such as exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial metrics, the paper conducts a quantitative analysis of the space differentiation of rural settlements in Jiangsu Province, and further identifies the regional types. The results are shown as follows. In spatial distribution, the rural settlements in Jiangsu are characterized by obvious concentration with evident spatial variability, which is shown in the ladder-like sparse distribution towards the north and south in areas along the Yangtze River with high correlation in the overall distribution and geomorphic types. In the scale, the rural settlements in Jiangsu are generally in small scale with small difference in the scale of small villages and large gap in the scale of large villages which account for a small proportion. The rural settlements in Jiangsu are characterized by low concentration in size distribution, and is obviously presented in the "dumbbell" structure, namely, the rural settlements in northern and southern Jiangsu are in a large scale, and those in the central part are in a relatively small scale. In the spatial change of form and pattern, through the measurement of the pattern indices of the five transects in the northern, central and southern Jiangsu, the coastal area and areas along the Grand Canal, it was found that the form of the rural settlements in central Jiangsu is more complex than that in the northern and southern parts of the province, and the form of coastal area is more complex than that in areas along the canal. The rural settlements in southern Jiangsu and areas along the canal are characterized by good connectivity. The rural settlements in the five transects are significantly differentiated in distribution. Finally, through establishing the morphological measurement index system of the rural settlements, by adopting the method of hierarchical cluster, the rural settlements in Jiangsu are divided into eight types: Xulian hillock (low-density large-mass type), Suhuai plain (medium-density broad-band type), coastal reclamation area (high-density stripe type), polder area in central Suzhou (medium-density arc-belt type), plain south of the Yangtze River (medium-density small-mass type), lake mound land (low-density point-scattered type), Ningyi hilly region ( cluster-like dispersal type), and Lixiahe area (low-density cluster-like type).

Key words: rural settlement, scale and morphology, spatial pattern, regional types, Jiangsu Province