地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (4): 455-466.doi: 10.11821/xb201204003

• 资源环境与产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国石油资源流动源—汇系统空间格局特征

赵媛, 杨足膺, 郝丽莎, 牛海玲   

  1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210046
  • 收稿日期:2011-06-15 修回日期:2012-01-10 出版日期:2012-04-20 发布日期:2012-06-11
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40971289); 教育部博士学科点专项科研基金项目(20093207110010); 江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目

The Evolution of Spatial Displacement Pattern of China's Crude Oil Flow Source-sink System

ZHAO Yuan, YANG Zuying, HAO Lisha, NIU Hailing   

  1. School of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China
  • Received:2011-06-15 Revised:2012-01-10 Online:2012-04-20 Published:2012-06-11
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971289; Doctor SubjectFoundation of the Ministry of Education of China, No.20093207110010; The Priority Academic Program Developmentof Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

摘要: 以中国石油(特指原油) 资源流动为研究对象,把中国省级行政单元抽象为石油资源流动节点,从1985-2009 年中选取5 个特征时点,根据各流动节点石油自给能力及流动比率,将各特征时点的石油流动省份划分为源地、汇地和交流地3 大流动职能类型,并将主要石油进口港(含陆上口岸) 作为进口石油源地;分别利用重心和标准差椭圆分析源地系统和汇地系统空间分布格局的集中与离散趋势,得出中国石油资源流动源—汇系统空间格局的位移和形变特征.结果表明:① 源地系统重心位于中国东偏北部,在经历了1985-1995 年的西北向移动后,1995-2009 年大幅向西南偏移,南北方向的移动速度快于东西方向;汇地系统重心偏于中国中东部,移动幅度相对较小,1985-1999 年呈南北向移动、1999-2003 年呈东西向移动,最终快速向西南方向偏移.② 从标准差椭圆分析来看,源地系统的空间分布先趋于分散后又趋于集中,由东北—西南的分布格局逐渐趋向于西北—东南的分布格局;汇地系统空间分布格局相对较为稳定,小幅极化后略趋分散,呈较为稳定的东北—西南分布.③ 中国石油资源流动的平均方向由东北—西南向偏转为南北向,平均运距呈下降趋势,主导流向由东北—西南向逐步转变为西北—东南向和东西向输流并存.

关键词: 石油资源流动, 源地系统, 汇地系统, 空间位移, 空间形变, 中国

Abstract: Taking provinces as the flow nodes, this paper examines the spatial evolution of China's crude oil flow in five typical years selected from the research period 1985-2009. According to the oil self-sufficiency ratio and liquidity ratio, flow nodes are divided into three types: source regions, sink regions and transit regions in five typical years, respectively. Then, adopting the gravity center and standard deviational ellipse, this paper analyzes the central tendency and dispersion pattern of the spatial distribution of the sources and sinks, in order to clarify the spatial displacement and shape change of source-sink system. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows.
(1) Although mainly located in the northeast of China, the gravity center of source system of crude oil flow had moved northwest from 1985 to 1995, and then southwest from 1995 to 2009. As a whole, its moving speed in the north-south direction was higher than that in the east-west direction. The gravity center of sink system of crude oil flow was mainly located in east China, its moving ranges were relatively small compared to the source system, and it mainly moved in the north-south direction from 1985 to 1999, while mainly in the east-west direction from 1999 to 2003, and lastly inclined southwest.
(2) The analysis of standard deviational ellipses shows that the spatial pattern of source system became centralized in 2003-2009 after decentralized in 1985-1999, and its dominant distribution direction had changed from northeast-southwest to approximate northwest-southeast. The distribution pattern of sink system was relatively stable, which became slightly centralized in 1985-2003, and then somewhat decentralized, and its dominant distribution direction has always maintained as northeast-southwest.
(3) As expressed by the evolution of the link between the gravity centers of source system and sink system, the mean direction of crude oil flow in China had gradually changed to north-south from northeast-southwest, and the mean flow length tended to decline. As shown by the evolution of the links between the principal axes of source system and sink system, the dominant direction of crude oil flow in China gradually changed from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast and east-west.

Key words: crude oil flow, source system, sink system, spatial displacement, spatial shape change, China