地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (3): 291-300.doi: 10.11821/xb201203001

• 气候变化 •    下一篇

历史时期中国重大自然灾害时空分异特征

刘毅1, 杨宇1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-07 修回日期:2012-01-30 出版日期:2012-03-20 发布日期:2012-05-14
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划课题(2008BAK50B05); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCXZ-YW-Q03-08)

Spatial Distribution of Major Natural Disasters of China in Historical Period

LIU Yi1, YANG Yu1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-11-07 Revised:2012-01-30 Online:2012-03-20 Published:2012-05-14
  • Supported by:
    National Technology R&D Program, No.2008BAK50B05; Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZCXZ-YW-Q03-08

摘要: 通过历史文献和史料记载的整理,对中国历史时期的重大自然灾害进行了系统的梳理,分析了公元前180 年-1911 年和民国时期重大自然灾害发生的频次和损失的时空格局特征,得出结论:(1) 对灾害发生的频次进行分析,不同灾种发生频次不同,空间格局呈现明显的地域分异,灾害的空间分布与灾种之间的关系明显;(2) 对灾害带来的损失进行分析,发现不同类型灾害发生的频次与灾害带来损失的空间格局并不相同。究其原因在于:(1) 各种自然灾害的孕灾环境不同,是其空间格局差异性的决定性因素;(2) 自然灾害带来的损失大小与经济和人口的集中程度密切相关。自然灾害损失较大的往往都是农业、文化、商贸较为发达的区域,这也是我国区域经济格局空间差异的必然。

关键词: 自然灾害, 空间格局, 历史时期

Abstract: Based on collation of historical documents and records of China's major disasters in the historical period, this paper analyzes the characteristics of frequency and distribution of major disasters, including the number of occurrences, the structure and distribution of major disasters, and the number and disttribution of dead people induced by the major disasters. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) Through the analysis of the frequency of major disasters, we found that occurrences of different types of disasters were different and the provincial patterns were significantly different from each other. There is close relationship between different types of disasters and their distribution. (2) Based on the analysis of the disaster losses, the spatial pattern of losses was not the same as that of frequency. The reasons for the above phenomena are as follows. (1) China is one of the countries most affected by natural disasters. The hazard-formative environments and hazard-formative factors of different types of disasters are significantly different. So the natural condition is the decisive factor of the distribution of different major disasters. (2) The losses caused by natural disasters were closely related to the concentration of economic and population. In general, the number of dead people was larger in the areas with more developed agriculture, culture and business.

Key words: natural disasters, spatial pattern, historical period