地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (2): 266-282.doi: 10.11821/xb201202012

• 理论与方法探索 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于易学与堪舆学的人地关系和谐论思辨

孙峰华1,2,3   

  1. 1. 鲁东大学环渤海发展研究院, 烟台 264025;
    2. 鲁东大学地理与规划学院, 烟台 264025;
    3. 山西师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 临汾 041004
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-05 修回日期:2011-11-26 出版日期:2012-02-20 发布日期:2012-04-16
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金特别委托项目(2007@ZH005); 国家软科学重大项目(2700ZXQ4D166)

Speculation of Human-earth Harmony Theory Based on Yi Studies and Geomancy

SUN Fenghua1,2,3   

  1. 1. Development Research Institute of the Region Encircling the Bohai Sea, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, Shandong, China;
    2. College of Geography and Planning, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, Shandong, China;
    3. School of Urban and Environment Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, Shanxi, China
  • Received:2011-07-05 Revised:2011-11-26 Online:2012-02-20 Published:2012-04-16
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Funds Special Commission Project of China, No.2007@ZH005; Key Project ofNational Soft Science of China, No.2700ZXQ4D166

摘要: 易学是哲学也是人文地理学研究“人地关系”的一种哲学方法论。本文探讨了易学大成之周易的科学性质,附带着研究了李约瑟难题并给出答案。文章指出“易历四世”是易学认识“人地关系”发展规律不断升华的哲学嬗变,探讨了连山易、归藏易、周易哲学思想对“人地关系”规律的认识。着重研究了作为人文地理学的一种哲学方法论——周易对“人地关系”的解释。堪舆学胎生于易学,没有易学就没有堪舆学。现代堪舆学与中国人文地理学关联密切,其原因是:① 自然地理环境要素是堪舆学的基础;② 大量的地理知识和方法是堪舆学研究的支柱;③ 堪舆学研究的核心是人地关系。探究了易学、堪舆学与人地关系协调论的辩证关系,揭示了易学和堪舆学在研究、协调人地关系中的重要作用。对堪舆学的认识,可谓“仁者见仁,智者见智”。中国现代人文地理学应该用历史的、客观的、科学的、辩证的观点解读其独特领域——堪舆学。以“青海黄河果岭国际旅游度假区总体规划”布局为案例,探讨了现代堪舆学的实践过程。堪舆学含有一定的迷信成分,但也含有极为重要的科学思想。既不要用其科学性掩盖其伪科学性,也不要用其伪科学性否定其科学性。无论是学院派还是民间派,只要研究、应用堪舆学的人,都树立了科学的堪舆学思想,真正的现代堪舆学也就建立起来了,风水迷信也就荡然无存了。中国人文地理学研究易学、堪舆学,应与西方相关的人文地理哲学、学科紧密的结合起来,去粗取精,去伪存真、古为今用、洋为中用,共同推动中国人文地理学的发展,建设有中国特色的人文地理学。中国的堪舆学、人文地理学正处在转型的关键时期,需要更多的关怀、宽容和空间。

关键词: 易学, 周易, 堪舆学, 人地关系, 和谐论, 思辨, 案例

Abstract: This paper introduces the background and significance of the study. It points out that Yi Studies is not only philosophy but also philosophical methodology for studying man-land relationship by human geography. It discusses the scientific nature of Zhou Yi which collects most of the harvests in Yi Studies. It also studies "Joseph Needham's puzzle" in passing with an answer given. This paper states that the long developing process marked by four historic periods of Yi Studies is a philosophic evolution of Yi Studies in understanding the laws of man-land relationship. It discusses the laws of man-land relationship indicated by philosophical thoughts of Lianshan Yi, Guicang Yi and Zhou Yi. It places more emphasis on the study of a philosophical methodology of human geography—the interpretation of man-land relationship by Zhou Yi. Geomancy originated from Yi Studies, and therefore, there was no geomancy without Yi Studies. Modern geomancy is closely interrelated with China's human geography. The reasons are shown as follows. (1) Physical geographical environmental factors are the basis of geomancy. (2) A mass of geographical knowledge and methods are the stanchion of geomancy study. (3) The core of geomancy study is man-land relationship. The paper studies dialectical relationship between human-earth harmoniousness theory, Zhou Yi and geomancy and reveals the roles of Zhou Yi and geomancy play in research and coordination of man-land relationship. As viewpoints of geomancy are quite different, Chinese modern human geography should unscramble its special field—geomancy historically, objectively, scientifically and dialectically. Correspondently, the practical process of modern geomancy is discussed with the layout of the overall planning of Guoling International Tourism Holiday District of Qinghai Yellow River as an example. Geomancy contains certain superstition, but it also has important scientific thoughts. We should neither cover its pseudoscientificity with its scientificity, nor should we deny its scientificity by its pseudoscientificity. If scientific thoughts of geomancy were set up in the research and application community of geomancy, no matter whether in academic schools or folk ones, the real scientific geomancy would be established, and all of superstitions in geomancy would have gone. The paper suggests that the studies of Yi Studies and geomancy by Chinese human geography should be combined with Western human geography and relevant subjects by discarding the dross and selecting the essence, eliminating the false and retaining the true, making the past serve the present and foreign things serve China as well. Hence, Chinese human geography development can be impelled and human geography with Chinese characteristics will be set up. Finally, the paper points out that Chinese geomancy and human geography are now entering a critical historical transition period, so more concern, tolerance and space are needed.

Key words: Yi Studies, Zhou Yi, geomancy, man-land relationship, harmonious theory, speculation, cases