地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (2): 221-229.doi: 10.11821/xb201202008

• 土地利用与乡村发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

西南山区农村生活能源消费结构的影响因素分析——以云南省昭通市为例

梁育填1,2, 樊杰1, 孙威1, 韩晓旭1, 盛科荣3, 马海龙1, 徐勇1, 王传胜1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510275;
    3. 山东理工大学经济学院, 山东淄博 255049
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-10 修回日期:2011-10-25 出版日期:2012-02-20 发布日期:2012-04-16
  • 通讯作者: 樊杰(1961-), 男, 陕西西安人, 博士生导师, 研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110005375M), 主要从事中国区域发展问题研究。E-mail: fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学重点基金项目(40830741); 国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(40701044)

The Influencing Factors of Rural Household Energy Consumption Structure in Mountainous Areas of Southwest China: A Case Study of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province

LIANG Yutian1,2, FAN Jie1, SUN Wei1, HAN Xiaoxu1, MA Hailong3, SHENG Kerong1, XU Yong1, WANG Chuansheng1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    3. Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, Shandong, China
  • Received:2011-01-10 Revised:2011-10-25 Online:2012-02-20 Published:2012-04-16
  • Supported by:
    NationalNatural Science Foundation of China, No.40830741; No.40701044

摘要: 能源是贫困地区农户赖以生产和发展的基本生计资产,过度采伐薪柴的能源消费行为是加剧生态脆弱地区水土流失、土壤侵蚀、森林植被破坏的重要因素。西南山区既是我国贫困地区,又是生态环境脆弱地区,本文选取在西南山区经济发展水平和生态脆弱性都具有代表性的云南省昭通市为案例,基于946 份调查问卷,采用Tobit 模型对非商品性能源和商品性能源的消费比例的影响因素进行回归分析,并得出以下结论:① 地形特征对西南山区农村能源消费结构影响显著,薪柴和秸秆等非商品性能源受资源禀赋影响显著,而煤炭等商品性能源更多的是受市场距离影响。② 随着家庭人均收入的增加,非商品性能源消费比例将下降,煤炭和电力等商品性能源消费比例将上升,但是西南贫困地区由于农户生计资产有限,收入增长缓慢,能源消费结构升级艰难。③ 家庭人均教育程度的提高、从事非农产业有助于西南山区农户增加商品性能源的消费比例,从而提升能源消费结构。

关键词: 农村生活能源, 消费结构, 西南山区, Tobit模型

Abstract: No-commercial energy like firewood and straw is the basic livelihood asset on which the rural households in poverty-stricken and mountainous areas rely. Over-harvesting firewood is one of the dominant factors for soil erosion and deforestation in ecologically frangible region. Mountainous areas of Southwest China are poverty-stricken areas and ecologically frangible region as well. This study investigates the rural energy consumption characteristics by 946 survey questionnaires in the city of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Overall, coal is the dominant energy, and the second is by non-commercial or traditional energy such as firewood and straw, followed by electricity and biogas utilization. Meanwhile, energy consumption structure of rural households displays a marked spatial distribution, with coal dominated at flat river valley areas and firewood concentrated in mountainous areas. Moreover, this study also analyzes the factors affecting the proportion of non-commercial and commercial energy consumption by the Tobit model. The results show that (1) Firewood and straw consumption is affected mainly by the per-capita forest land and per-capita arable land, while coal is subject to price, availability and accessibility. (2) With the increase of per-capita income, the proportion of the non-commercial energy would decline while the proportion of coal and electric energy would rise. However, it is difficult for poverty-stricken areas such as mountainous areas of Southwest China to upgrade the energy consumption structure due to living assets shortage and low income. (3) Development of education and expansion of employment in non-agricultural industry are helpful for households in this region to reduce the proportion of traditional energy and increase the proportion of commercial energy consumption. Only in this way can their energy consumption structure be changed.

Key words: rural household energy, consumption structure, mountainous areas of Southwest China, Tobit model