地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (12): 1644-1656.doi: 10.11821/xb201112006

• 城市与乡村发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

二战以来联邦德国乡村地区的发展与演变

孟广文1, Hans Gebhardt2   

  1. 1. 天津师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 天津 300387;
    2. 德国海德堡大学地理研究所, D-69120 Heidelberg
  • 收稿日期:2011-04-15 修回日期:2011-07-28 出版日期:2011-12-20 发布日期:2012-01-19
  • 通讯作者: Hans Gebhardt (1950- ), 男, 德国籍, 教授, 德国蒂宾根大学博士;研究方向为空间规划、文化与经济地理、城市地理, 中国、中东和东南亚地理.E-mail: hans.gebhardt@geog.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail:hans.gebhardt@geog.uni-heidelberg.de
  • 作者简介:孟广文(1960- ), 男, 天津市人, 教授, 德国海德堡大学博士;中国地理学会会员(S110008233M), 研究方向为经济地理, 区域规划和区域政策, 德国人文地理.E-mail: gwmeng98@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41171102);德国对外学术交流基金项目(DAAD)

Rural Development and Transformation in the Federal Republic of Germany since the 1950s

MENG Guangwen1, Hans GEBHARDT2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China;
    2. Institute of Geography, University of Heidelberg, Berliner Strasse 48, D-69120 Heidelberg
  • Received:2011-04-15 Revised:2011-07-28 Online:2011-12-20 Published:2012-01-19
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171102

摘要: 二战以后联邦德国①已成为世界第四和欧洲最大的经济体,然而,城乡以及联邦各州之间,特别是东西部之间的区域发展仍然不平衡.本文在国内相关初步研究基础上,从动态、区域和景观视角对联邦德国战后至今乡村地区整体发展过程、特征与区域差异及未来发展趋势进行了分析与研究,并对我国乡村地区未来发展思路进行了探讨.战后德国乡村地区经历了农业规模减小、生产率提高,传统乡村景观改变,特别是德国东西部地区乡村差异化发展的过程.原东德地区经过社会主义改造由传统乡村和农业向农田规模化、经营产业化、居住城镇化、农民工人化的社会主义集体农庄和集体农业转变,但德国统一后这一体系难以适应欧盟的标准,导致农村衰落,居民大规模外迁.经过战后短暂的再城市化,原西德乡村地区经历了一个逆城市化过程,大量工厂和年轻人搬到农村,很多乡村已经由传统的农庄转变为有吸引力的现代化居民点.然而,尽管乡村现代化改善了乡村基础设施和居住环境,但城市风格的楼房和宽阔笔直的道路也破坏了乡村原有的结构形态和优美的自然风貌.20 世纪70 年代以后西德开始制定乡村发展和更新规划,并实施"我们的乡村应更美丽"的行动计划,其主要目标包括提高农产品质量和种类、开发农业房地产和乡村旅游,初步实现了传统乡村和农业向现代代化和生态化的转变.联邦德国乡村地区未来4 个发展的趋势包括高科技农业、可更新的能源、生态公园和非农业化发展.根据联邦德国发展经验和我国乡村城市化的现状,我国的城乡一体化路径应首先完善乡村发展的政策纲领、规划体系和行动计划,鼓励当地居民参与乡村发展规划的制定;城乡一体化应包括乡村城市化与乡村现代化及生态化两部分;具有特色的乡村地区应实现基础设施和公共服务现代化,但保持村庄形态结构和景观的乡村风貌;提高农产品质量和数量,发展乡村地产和乡村服务业;部分生态脆弱的乡村地区进行生态移民,建成生态和自然公园.

关键词: 文化景观, 乡村发展规划, 乡村转型, 新农村建设, 联邦德国

Abstract: The Federal Republic of Germany has become the largest economy in the European Union and ranks fourth worldwide, but unbalanced regional development still exists between the urban and rural areas, and especially between West and East Germany. Based on a dynamic regional and cultural landscape analysis, this paper summarizes the rural developmental process and characteristics in Germany since the 1950s, concerning an increase of the labour productivity and landscape change followed by a decrease of the agricultural and farm scale. After then, it analyzes the different rural development paths and the features both in East and West Germany. After the socialist transformation, traditional agriculture and villages in East Germany were transformed to socialist agriculture and collective farms featured by large-scale farms, industrial management and urbanization. Since this system did not meet EU standards, the system was abandoned after the German reunification, which led to massive emigration to urban areas, especially to West Germany. Followed by a short re-urbanization, West Germany experienced a de-urbanization process from the 1960s to the 1970s. A lot of enterprises and young people moved to the rural areas, in which formed many attractive settlements. However, the urbanized buildings, and wide and straight streets destroyed the original structure and natural scene of the villages, although their infrastructure and public facilities were greatly improved. Since the 1970s, West Germany has formulated the rural development plan, rural renewal plan, and carried out an action plan called "Our villages should be more beautiful", which aimed to improve the quality and variety of the agricultural products, to develop rural real estate, and rural service industry. The four development trends for German rural areas in the future are high-tech agriculture, renewable energy (bio-energy), rural service industry, eco- and natural parks. On the basis of experience of Germany and recent rural development of China, this paper discusses the urban-rural integrative development path of China as follows: formulating and improving the rural development policy, integrative planning framework and action plan;encouraging participation of the residents in rural planning;urban-rural integration including rural urbanization and modernization;urbanization of several villages near to the city, and modernization of infrastructure and public facilities, preserving the rural spatial structure and traditional scenes of others with cultural and historical value;improving quality and variety of agricultural products, developing rural real estate and rural service industry;carrying out an ecological immigrants policy in fragile regions, and establishing eco-parks and natural parks.

Key words: cultural landscape, rural development plan, rural transformation, new rural construction, The Federal Republic of Germany