地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (12): 1607-1617.doi: 10.11821/xb201112003

• 理论与方法研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

区域综合运输成本研究的理论探讨

吴威, 曹有挥, 梁双波   

  1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-07 修回日期:2011-10-12 出版日期:2011-12-20 发布日期:2012-01-19
  • 作者简介:吴威(1976- ), 男, 安徽歙县人, 博士, 中国地理学会会员(S110006064M), 主要从事区域经济与运输地理研究.E-mail: wudp1976@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40801052;40871070);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-339)

On the Theory of Regional Integrated Transportation Costs

WU Wei, CAO Youhui, LIANG Shuangbo   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
  • Received:2011-01-07 Revised:2011-10-12 Online:2011-12-20 Published:2012-01-19
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40801052;No.40871070; The Key Item of Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-YW-339

摘要: 当前从部门和企业层面对运输成本的研究已较为深入,而在区域层面,相关研究主要集中于运输成本效应的分析,本文尝试立足于区域视角和宏观尺度,从概念内涵、主要影响因素、计量模型、空间格局的形成演化机制及时空演化规律等方面构建区域综合运输成本研究的理论框架.区域综合运输成本是对特定地域单元为进行客货流动所必须克服的阻力的一个宏观的、一般的衡量,深受一地综合交通可达性、客货运输规模及运输外部成本的影响;以此为基础,构建了区域综合运输成本指数以反映不同节点成本的相对高低.综合运输成本空间格局的形成与演化是交通基础设施格局、经济社会发展阶段及政府政策取向等共同作用的结果,一般条件下,其时空演化遵循"初级发散—收敛—高度收敛—发散"的基本模式,随时间推移,综合运输成本逐渐下降,而在空间分布上则由最初的低级均衡演化为非均衡,最终又趋于高级均衡.

关键词: 区域综合运输成本, 计量模型, 空间格局, 机制, 时空演化

Abstract: At present, important advances in transportation costs studies have been achieved at sector and enterprise levels. However, at the regional level, relevant studies focused primarily on the impacts of transportation costs. Based on the regional perspectives and macro-scales, this paper attempts to build a theoretical framework on the regional integrated transportation costs, which consists of its concept, the main influencing factors, the measurement model, the mechanism of pattern formation and changes, and the spatial-temporal evolution rules. For a particular geographic unit, the regional integrated transportation cost is a general measurement of the resistance of passenger and cargo flows, which is greatly influenced by the integrated transportation accessibility, the passenger and freight traffic scale, and the external costs of transportation, with the integrated transportation accessibility serving as a fundamental role. On this basis, the integrated transportation costs index is built to reflect the difference among node costs. The formation and evolution of the pattern of regional integrated transportation costs is the comprehensive result of the distribution pattern of transportation infrastructure, the stage of economic and social development, and the relevant policies. In general, spatial pattern evolution of integrated transportation costs follows a four-stage evolution model: Primary Divergence - Convergence - High Convergence - Divergence. The integrated transportation costs decrease gradually over the time, and its spatial distribution evolves from the initial equilibrium to non-equilibrium, and eventually to the high-level equilibrium.

Key words: regional integrated transportation costs, measurement model, pattern, mechanism, spatial-temporal evolution