地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (11): 1497-1507.doi: 10.11821/xb201111006

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆克拉玛依市生态敏感性研究

潘峰1,2,3, 田长彦1, 邵峰4, 周伟3, 陈飞3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049;
    3. 新疆维吾尔自治区环境保护技术咨询中心, 乌鲁木齐 830011;
    4. 新疆维吾尔自治区环境保护厅, 乌鲁木齐 830063
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-06 修回日期:2011-09-15 出版日期:2011-11-20 发布日期:2011-12-24
  • 通讯作者: 田长彦(1961-), 男, 研究员, 从事干旱区绿洲农业生态系统、干旱区生物多样性和生物资源利用研究。E-mail: tianchy@ms.xjb.ac.cn E-mail:tianchy@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:潘峰(1975-), 女, 博士生, 高级工程师, 长期从事生态环境影响评价理论与实证研究。E-mail: pfwnx@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家公益性行业科研专项经费资助(200903001); 中央资金专项业务费项目

Evaluation of Ecological Sensitivity in Karamay, Xinjiang, Northwest China

PAN Feng1,2,3, TIAN Changyan1, SHAO Feng4, ZHOU Wei3, CHEN Fei3   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Xinjiang Consultation Center of Environmental Protection Technology, Urumqi 830011, China;
    4. Xinjiang Department of Environmental Protection, Urumqi 830063, China
  • Received:2011-07-06 Revised:2011-09-15 Online:2011-11-20 Published:2011-12-24
  • Supported by:

    Support by specialfund for public welfare industrial research of China, No.200903001; Special Funds for Central Government

摘要: 基于地理信息系统空间分析、栅格运算与叠加方法,针对克拉玛依市土壤侵蚀、土地沙漠化、土壤盐渍化和生物多样性减少等区域自然环境演变过程中出现的生态问题,考虑油田开发这一人类活动影响因素,定量研究克拉玛依市综合生态敏感性空间特征。研究结果表明:(1) 土壤侵蚀敏感性以中、高和极高敏感性为主,高和极高敏感性分布在克拉玛依区和独山子区大部,乌尔禾区北部,白碱滩区西侧狭长区域。地形坡降迅速、水力侵蚀强、无植被或疏林地广泛分布,是土壤侵蚀敏感性较高的主要原因。(2) 土地沙漠化以中、高敏感性为主,高和极高敏感性分布在白碱滩区西部和南部,克拉玛依区北部和西部区域。土壤基质多为沙粒,且植被覆盖率较低是土地沙漠化敏感性高的主要原因。(3) 土壤盐渍化敏感性以中、高和极高等级为主,极高和高度敏感性分布在白碱滩区东南部,克拉玛依区东部和北部,以及乌尔禾区东部。蒸发量远大于降水量,人类活动剧烈,是土壤盐渍化敏感性高的主要原因。(4) 生物多样性以轻度和中度敏感性为主,高和极高敏感性分布于克拉玛依区东部和南部区域。这些区域植被生长茂盛、物种数量较为丰富,是重点生态保护区域。(5) 油田开发区域的生态敏感性高,分布在乌尔禾区北部油田,白碱滩区西部油田,克拉玛依区西北部油田和独山子区中部油田。油田开发带来的生态问题包括工业“三废”,动植物生境破坏和水资源短缺等。(6) 综合自然演化和人为开发的敏感性,研究区以高、中度敏感性为主,极高和高敏感性分布在克拉玛依区中部和北部,白碱滩区西南部区域。

关键词: 生态敏感性, 油田开发, 地理信息系统, 克拉玛依, 新疆

Abstract: Based on spatial analysis, and GIS grid computing and overlay techniques, whilst considering the effect of oil-field development and aimed at the ecological problems of Karamay in Xinjiang, we conducted research on the spatial characteristics of the comprehensive ecological sensitivity of Karamay. The ecological problems of natural environment evolution include soil erosion, land desertification, soil salinization, biodiversity reduction. The results of the research are as follows. (1) Soil erosion is relatively sensitive, especially in Karamay District, Dushanzi District, north of Urho District and west of Baijiantan District. (2) The main types of land desertification are represented by high and moderate grade sensitivities, and high and extremely high sensitive areas are distributed in the intersection of Karamay and Baijiantan districts. (3) The soil salinization sensitivity grades are mainly moderate, high and extremely high. The highly sensitive areas are mainly southeast of Baijiantan District, north and east of Karamay District and east of Urho District. The primary causes are evaporation exceeding rainfall and excessive human activities. (4) The main types of biodiversity sensitivity are light and moderate grades. Highly sensitive areas are located in the east and south of Karamay District, north of the Baiyang River Basin and in parts of the wetland areas. (5) Oil development fields are highly ecologically sensitive areas, which are located in the northern oilfields of Urho District, western oilfields of Baijiantan District, northwestern oilfields of Karamay District and central oilfields of the Dushanzi District. (6) The main types of integrated ecological sensitivity are high and moderate. The high and extremely highly sensitive areas are located in the centre and north of Karamay District, and southwest of Baijiantan District.

Key words: ecological sensitivity, oilfield development, GIS, Karamay City, Xinjiang