地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (10): 1355-1367.doi: 10.11821/xb201110006

• 产业与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国服务业政策效应及其影响因素

周侃1, 申玉铭1, 任旺兵2   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048;
    2. 国家发展和改革委员会宏观经济研究院, 北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2011-02-23 修回日期:2011-06-28 出版日期:2011-10-20 发布日期:2011-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 申玉铭(1968-), 男, 河南浚县人, 教授, 博导, 中国地理学会会员(S110005901M), 主要从事区域经济与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: shenyuming@263.net
  • 作者简介:周侃(1986-), 男, 云南丽江人, 研究生, 研究方向为区域规划与区域可持续发展。 E-mail: zhoukan2008@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40871069)

Policy Effects of Service Industry and Its Influencing Factors in China (2006-2010): A Perspective of Cognition and Experience of Service Enterprises

ZHOU Kan1, SHEN Yuming1, REN Wangbing2   

  1. 1. College of Resources Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China;
    2. Academy of Macroeconomic Research, NDRC, Beijing 100038, China
  • Received:2011-02-23 Revised:2011-06-28 Online:2011-10-20 Published:2011-10-20
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40871069

摘要: 通过对中国31 个省(市、自治区)近4000 个服务业企业的问卷调查,从服务业企业认知与体验的视角出发,对“十一五”时期中国服务业政策效应进行综合测度和影响因素分析,进而探讨服务业政策与服务业企业的作用机制,并提出中国服务业政策调整和优化的建议。结果表明: “十一五”时期服务业企业对服务业政策的认知水平不高,认知度受到营业额、劳动力素质、行业类型、行业地位和政策环境等因素的显著影响。企业对服务业政策的体验水平接近比较满意, 影响政策体验水平的因素主要有政策认知度、员工人数、效益、所有制类型、行业地位和政策环境等。针对中国服务业政策与服务业企业的作用机制,应从深化服务业体制改革、完善社会保障体系、平衡内外资鼓励政策、拓宽政策支持覆盖面、构建服务业企业对服务业政策实施情况的反馈机制等方面着手,推动转型期中国服务业向高比重、高效率方向发展。

关键词: 服务业政策, 影响因素, “十一五”时期, 中国

Abstract: Under the constraints of special system background and industrial structure in China, the industrial policy of the government can exert a substantial effect on the industry. The policy of service industry has become an important force in promoting the development of service industry in China's transitional economy. However, the existing researches generally adopt a perspective of government institutions. Based on economic statistical analysis or experience judgment, there are relatively few researches on the performance evaluation of service policies from the perspective of service enterprises. To some extent, the enterprises' demands are most effective to scale the policy effects of service industry, because enterprises are the ultimate recipients of various industrial policies, and they are confronted with multifarious changes of policy and market environment directly. By the questionnaire survey of nearly 4000 service enterprises in 31 provinces, 256 cities and 927 counties in China, this paper, in the perspective of cognition and experience of service enterprises, provides the comprehensive evaluation of policy effects and analyzes its influencing factors during the 11th Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010), and then the interaction of policies and service enterprises is discussed tentatively. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning the adjustment and optimization of service industry policies. The result are shown as follows. 1) Policy cognition of China's service enterprises is slightly on the low side during the period 2006-2010, and the low-grade trend is more prominent in western China. The policy cognition degree is significantly affected by annual turnover of enterprises, labor quality, industrial category, industrial status and policy making. 2) Service enterprises are relatively satisfied with the policy of service industry in China, and the satisfaction degree is under the considerable influence of policy cognition, employees quantity, benefit, ownership form, industry status and policy environment. 3) In terms of the interaction of policy and service enterprises, some policies are made correspondingly to achieve the transformation of China's service industry to higher proportion and efficiency, including strengthening the service system reform, perfecting the social security system, keeping the balance between domestic and foreign investment, broadening the coverage of policy supports and constructing the feedback mechanism of policy effects between service enterprises and government institutions.

Key words: service industry, policy effects, influence factors, the 11th Five-Year Plan Period, China