地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (10): 1299-1308.doi: 10.11821/xb201110001

• 城市研究 •    下一篇

北京城市办公空间的行业分布及集聚特征

张景秋1, 陈叶龙2   

  1. 1. 北京联合大学应用文理学院, 北京 100191;
    2. 扬州市城市规划编制研究中心, 扬州 225002
  • 收稿日期:2011-04-28 修回日期:2011-07-28 出版日期:2011-10-20 发布日期:2011-10-20
  • 作者简介:张景秋(1967-), 女, 甘肃兰州人, 博士, 教授, 硕士生导师, 中国地理学会理事(S110001012M), 研究方向为城市地理学, 城市与区域规划。E-mail: jingqiu@ygi.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40771063, 40871079)

Industrial Distribution and Clusters of Urban Office Space in Beijing

ZHANG Jingqiu1, CHEN Yelong2   

  1. 1. College of Arts and Sciences of Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China;
    2. Yangzhou Urban Planning and Research Center, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2011-04-28 Revised:2011-07-28 Online:2011-10-20 Published:2011-10-20
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40771063, 40871079

摘要: 以北京城区6 个行政区内的594 个抽样写字楼内公司数量、规模和行业隶属为研究样本和数据,运用缓冲区分析和Ripley's K(d) 函数等空间分析方法,探讨在城市经济转型过程中, 逐渐替代制造业的办公活动行业分布与空间集聚特征。即:① 从总体来看,北京城市各行业办公活动区位选择具有明显的向心性,其就业密度与公司密度表现在以天安门为中心,以5 km、10 km、15 km为半径的缓冲区圈层结构中由内向外逐渐递减的特点;② 各行业空间分异特征显著,整体呈现“东高西低”,城市高端功能区就业吸纳能力强的特点,其分布大体呈现 3 种集聚模式,即“大分散、小集聚”模式,“大分散、大集聚”模式和“小分散、大集聚” 模式;③ 各行业空间集聚趋势类似,均呈先增后减的倒“U”型结构特征,但其空间尺度存在差异,其中,社会服务业和批发零售业的办公区位可选范围最大,金融业集聚于特定区域,区位可选范围偏小,交通运输仓储和邮政业的交通区位指向显著。

关键词: 办公空间, 行业分布, 集聚特征, 空间分析, 北京

Abstract: The study on the industrial structure of urban office space helps to understand the formation of spatial structure of economic activities. We select 594 office buildings as the study samples. The location data of the samples are selected from 1921 office buildings that the research group gathered for two consecutive years by using Trimble Juno SB handheld GPS in six districts of Beijing. Most of the industrial attribute data came from e-Buy Data Information Company, and the rest of them came from the questionnaire and telephone interviews done by the research group. Using spatial analysis methods such as buffer analysis and Ripley's K (d) functions, we analyze the distribution of office industries and spatial clusters in which the office activities have gradually replaced the manufacturing activities in urban economic transformation. Furthermore, the study tries to reveal the spatial structure of economic activities in inner city of Beijing as follows. (1) Generally speaking, the choice of office industry location has obvious centrality in Beijing. Its company and employment density show a decreasing trend from inside to outside, which accords to the circle structure with Tiananmen Square as the center as well as 5 km, 10 km and 15 km as the radius buffer zones. (2) There is a significant difference in the spatial distribution of the industry, featured by "east higher and west lower". The high function area in the city has strong ability to attract employees. The spatial distribution patterns are generally identified in three modes of concentration. Wholesale and retail, social services and technology services present a "large scatter, large cluster" mode, namely, many companies cluster in the hotspots and the range is wide. Transportation and financial sectors have a "small scatter, large cluster" mode, that is, spatial distribution of the large companies show relative concentration and form a wider range of concentration hotspots. The construction, real estate, education and culture industries have a "large scatter, small cluster" mode. (3) The trend of spatial industrial concentration is similar, showing the way of increasing first and then decreasing as an inverted "U"-shaped structure. Owing to the different spatial scales, the office location of social services and wholesale and retail have the largest range of options; the financial industries gather in a specific area, and their location range options are small; transportation, storage and postal industries have a trend to a significant traffic location. The companies with higher absorptive capacity of employment in various office buildings tend to be located along the lines of communication. Thus, transportation condition is still an important factor affecting office location choice. In addition, different concentration features of the office sectors at various scales reflect the differences of selected range of office location.

Key words: office space, industrial distribution, cluster features, spatial analysis, Beijing