地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (9): 1219-1229.doi: 10.11821/xb201109007

• 水文研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

2003-2009 年中亚地区湖泊水位变化的时空特征

李均力, 陈曦, 包安明   

  1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-05 修回日期:2011-06-08 出版日期:2011-09-20 发布日期:2011-11-04
  • 作者简介:李均力(1980-), 男, 助理研究员, 主要从事遥感信息提取与湖泊变化研究。E-mail: lijl@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(4070633); 中国科学院西部博士资助项目(XBBS200809); 自治区“科技支疆”项目(200891128)

Spatial-temporal Characteristics of Lake Level Changes in Central Asia during 2003-2009

LI Junli, CHEN Xi, BAO Anming   

  1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2011-01-05 Revised:2011-06-08 Online:2011-09-20 Published:2011-11-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.4070633; China Western Doctoral Support Project, No.XBBS200809; Technology Support Xinjiang Project, No.200891128

摘要: 利用ICESat/GLAS 卫星测高数据产品获取2003-2009 年间中亚地区24 个典型湖泊的水位信息,分析该地区湖泊水位变化的时间过程和空间特征,并结合流域内气象观测数据和冰川、水坝分布图,分析不同类型湖泊的水位变化对气候变化与人类活动的响应。结果表明,湖泊水位变化与湖泊所在流域的年均降水量的变化呈显著的正相关;冰川融水对高山封闭湖泊的变化具有重要作用,其中在青藏高原北部、帕米尔高原和天山中部有大量冰川分布的流域,湖泊水位变化与湖泊补给系数呈正相关,水位主要表现为升高或稳定的状态;而在天山和阿尔泰山高地区无冰川补给的流域,水位随湖泊补给系数的增大而呈现负变化。水利枢纽或拦水坝为人类活动对湖泊的直接影响因子,其空间分布与近年来外流湖和平原尾闾湖的水位变化有关。拦水建坝的外流湖和尾闾湖的水位下降明显,而未建拦水坝或水利枢纽的外流湖水位相对稳定,进一步印证了近年来中亚水资源过度开发造成湖泊水位下降的事实。

关键词: 中亚地区, 湖泊, 水位变化, 时空特征, ICESat/GLAS

Abstract: ICESat/GLAS satellite altimetry data is employed to extract lake level information of 24 lakes in central Asia during 2003-2009, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of these level changes are also analyzed with other land features such as drainage basins, glaciers and dam information, so as to discuss the responses of level changes of different types of lakes to climate change and human activities. It is shown that the ICESat/GLAS lake level changes in october correlate with changes of precipitation inside the drainage basins. Glaciers also have great impact on alpine closed lakes, and their level changes act in two modes according to glacier distribution inside the lake drainage basins. Lakes in the Kunlun Mountains, the Pamir Plateau and the middle Tianshan Mountain have glaciers in their drainage basins, whose level changes have positive relations with the lake supply coefficients, while lakes in the Altay Mountains and the Tianshan mountains have no glacier-melting water to feed, whose water levels are negatively related with their supply coefficients. Level changes of open lakes and plain closed lakes aree significantly correlated with the distribution of dams. Lakes with dams decrease dramatically in water levels, while the open lakes without dams remain are stable, indicating that the overexploitation of water resources in central Asia has resulted in lake level decline.

Key words: central Asia, lake, lake level changes, spatial-temporal characteristics, ICESat/GLAS