地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (9): 1155-1165.doi: 10.11821/xb201109001

• 气候变化 •    下一篇

近50 年气候变化背景下中国冰川面积状况分析

张明军, 王圣杰, 李忠勤, 王飞腾   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070;
    2. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室/天山冰川站,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2011-03-22 修回日期:2011-06-07 出版日期:2011-09-20 发布日期:2011-09-20
  • 作者简介:张明军(1975-), 男, 教授, 博导, 中国地理学会会员(S110007775M), 主要从事气候变化与冰川研究。E-mail: mjzhang2004@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41161012); 教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(NCET-10-0019); 陇原青年创新人才扶持计划项目; 国家重点基础研究发展规划(973) 项目(2010CB951003); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-EW-311); 西北师范大学知识与科技创新工程创新团队项目(NWNU-KJCXGC-03-66)

Variation of Glacier Area in China against the Warming in the Past 50 Years

ZHANG Mingjun, WANG Shengjie, LI Zhongqin, WANG Feiteng   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Environment Sciences, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences/Tianshan Glaciological Station, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2011-03-22 Revised:2011-06-07 Online:2011-09-20 Published:2011-09-20
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41161012; Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University by the Education Ministry of China, No.NCET-10-0019; Foundation for Young Innovative Scientists in Gansu Province; National Basic Research Program of China, No.2010CB951003; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX2-EW-311; Knowledge and Technological Innovation Project of Northwest Normal University, No.NWNU-KJCXGC-03-66

摘要: 根据近年来中国典型区域冰川面积变化遥感监测数据,结合139 个地面站的气温、降水量与28 个探空站的0 ℃层高度气象资料,分析了近50 年气候变化背景下中国冰川面积状况。结果表明,研究区冰川面积从20 世纪60-70 年代的23982 km2减小到21 世纪初的21893 km2,根据冰川分布进行加权计算后冰川面积退缩了10.1%,对时间插补后得到1960 年以来的冰川面积年均变化率为0.3 % a-1。就冰川面积变化的空间分布特征而言,天山的伊犁河流域、准噶尔内流水系、阿尔泰山的鄂毕河流域、祁连山的河西内流水系等都是冰川退缩程度较高的区域。近50 年中国冰川区夏季地面气温与大气0 ℃层高度均呈上升趋势,而降水量的增幅却相对轻微,增长的降水量不足以抵消升温对冰川的影响,气候变暖是影响冰川面积变化的主要因素。

关键词: 气候变化, 冰川, 气温, 降水量, 0 ℃层高度

Abstract: According to the remote sensing records on glacier area in the typical regions of China, as well as the meteorological data of air temperature and precipitation at 139 stations and the 0 ℃ isotherm height at 28 stations, the variation of glacier area in China and its climatic background in the past 50 years was discussed. The initial glacier area calculated in this study was 23982 km2 in the 1960s/1970s, but the present area was only 21893 km2 in the 2000s. The area-weighted shrinking rate of glacier was 10.1% , and the temporal-interpolated annual percentage of area changes (APAC) of glacier was 0.3% a-1 since 1960. The high APAC was found at the Ili River Basin and the Junggar Interior Basin around the Tianshan Mountains, the Ertix River (a tributary of the Ob River) Basin around the Altay Mountains, the Hexi Interior Basin around the Qilian Mountains, etc. The retreat of glaciers was affected by climatic background, and the influence on glaciers of the slightly-increased precipitation is counteracted by the significant warming in summer.

Key words: climate change, glacier, air temperature, precipitation, 0 ℃ isotherm height