地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (8): 1141-1152.doi: 10.11821/xb201108013

• 土地利用与农业地理 • 上一篇    

农户后顾生计来源及其居民点整合研究 ——基于重庆市西部郊区白林村471户农户调查

王成1, 王利平1, 李晓庆1, 李阳兵2, 邵景安2, 蒋伟3   

  1. 1. 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715;
    2. 重庆师范大学地理学院, 重庆 400045;
    3. 重庆市土地整理中心, 重庆 400015
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-10 修回日期:2011-03-03 出版日期:2011-08-20 发布日期:2011-09-22
  • 作者简介:王成(1974-), 男, 重庆荣昌人, 硕士生导师, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110008064M), 主要从事土地利用与农村发展的研究。E-mail: wchorange@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金青年项目(11CGL056);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(07JA630024);重庆市社会科学规划项目(2010QNZH28)

The Source of the Forward-security of Farmers' Livelihood and Settlement Integration: Based on the Survey of 477 Farmers in Bailin Village, West Suburbs of Chongqing

WANG Cheng1, WANG Liping1, LI Xiaoqing1, LI Yangbing2, SHAO Jing'an2, JIANGWei3   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China;
    2. School of Geographical Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400045, China;
    3. Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center, Chongqing 400015, China
  • Received:2010-09-10 Revised:2011-03-03 Online:2011-08-20 Published:2011-09-22
  • Supported by:

    Youth Funds of National Social Science, No. 11CGL056; Youth Funds on Social and Humanities Sciences Supported by the Ministry of Education, No.07JA630024; Project Funds on the Planning of Social Sciences in Chongqing, No.2010QNZH28

摘要: 农户生计资产决定着农户生计方式选择与生计策略行为,作为当前农户主要消费性投资行为的农村居民点建设消费受制于农户所拥有的生计资产量,基于此引导农户的居民点建设消费行为、开展农村居民点整合已成为当前提高农村土地利用效率、改善农户生产生活条件的关键。研究选取重庆市沙坪坝区白林村为样点,采用“PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) +3S”相结合的方法,以地理坐标为标识码,建立农户属性数据与地块的空间数据相链接的“农户—土地”数据库。运用该数据库,构建农户生计资产量化指标体系,量化农户生计资产进行农户分化,剖析不同农户的后顾生计来源及其住居意愿,开展农村居民点整合。结果表明,农户生计资产的配置结构差异明显,8%的农户各项资产产值高于平均水平,23%的农户各项资产产值处于中等水平;以农户拥有的自然资产产值为主辅以其他各项资产产值,将农户划分为农业多样化发展型(16%)、农业专业化发展型(8%)、兼业化发展型(23%)、非农多样化发展型(31%) 和非农专业化发展型(22%) 5 类;根据不同生计来源农户的住居意愿并结合国家与地方发展战略,构建了社区型(非农多样化发展型与非农专业化发展型)、组团型(农业专业化发展型)、块状型(农业多样化发展型) 和带状型(兼业化发展型) 4 种农村居民点整合方式。

关键词: 居民点整合, 生计资产, 农户分化, 后顾生计来源, 住居意愿

Abstract: Farmers' livelihood assets decide their choices of livelihood means and maneuver behavior. The consumption of settlement construction, as one of the main consumption investment of farmers, is enslaved to the quantity of farmers' livelihood assets provided. How to realize rational consumption of settlement construction of farmers based on the investigation of their livelihood assets has become the key to enhancing the efficiency of land resources in rural areas and improving the production and living conditions of farmers. Therefore, by taking Bailin Village in Chongqing city as an example, by the methods of 'PAR (Participatory Rural Appraisal)+3S' and using geo-coordinates as a unique code, this paper did a farmer survey from July to December, 2009, and then set up a 'farmers-land' geo-database to link farmers' attribution and space characteristics of land managed by farmers. Accordingly, this paper, based on the database, constructed the index system to quantize farmers' livelihood assets, then compartmentalized the farmers' styles and analyzed the demand of different farmer's rural settlements, and then realized the integration of farmers' rural settlements. The results indicated that the allocation structures of farmers' livelihood assets differentiated greatly. The livelihood assets of 8% of the farmers preponderated over an average value and 23% at medium level. Meanwhile, mainly based on the natural asset product and accompanied with other assets, the farmers were divided into four types, that is non-agricultural diversification farmer type (31%), part-time development type (23% ), non-agricultural specialization development type (22% ), agricultural diversification development type (16%) and agricultural specialization type (8%). According to different sources of farmers' livelihood together with national and local strategies, the types of farmers' rural settlements, including community type (non-agricultural specialization development type and non-agricultural diversification development type), group type (agricultural specialization development type), service type (agricultural diversification development type) and ribbon-type (part-time development type) , were constructed in the study areas.

Key words: integration of farmers' settlements, livelihood assets, farmers' differentiation, source of forward-security livelihood, living willingness