地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (8): 1023-1032.doi: 10.11821/xb201108002

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于居民出行行为的北京市交通碳排放影响机理

马静1,3, 柴彦威1, 刘志林2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院城市与经济地理系, 北京 100871;
    2. 清华大学公共管理学院公共政策所, 北京 100084;
    3. 英国利兹大学地理系, 利兹市
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-10 修回日期:2011-01-30 出版日期:2011-08-20 发布日期:2011-09-22
  • 通讯作者: 柴彦威(1964-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110000358M), 主要研究方向为城市地理学与行为地理学。E-mail: chyw@pku.edu.cn E-mail:chyw@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:马静(1986-), 女, 河南郑州人, 博士研究生, 中国地理学会会员(S110007222A), 主要研究方向为城市地理学与行为地理学。E-mail: majing0322@yahoo.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071102);清华大学自主科研计划资助课题(20101081895)

The Mechanism of CO2 Emissions from Urban Transport Based on Individuals' Travel Behavior in Beijing

MAJing1,3, CHAI Yanwei1, LIU Zhilin2   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Economic Geography, School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    3. School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • Received:2010-09-10 Revised:2011-01-30 Online:2011-08-20 Published:2011-09-22
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071102;Project of Independent Research Plan Supported by Tsinghua University, No.20101081895

摘要: 近年来低碳城市逐渐成为众多学科关注的焦点所在,国内外学者从多个角度对其开展一系列的理论与实证研究,但从微观层面深入探讨城市交通碳排放的影响机理的研究相对较为缺乏。利用北京市居民活动日志调查获取的第一手数据,基于居民日常出行行为计算微观层面的城市交通碳排放,并采用结构方程模型深入挖掘居住空间、个体行为以及交通碳排放三者之间的内在关系。结果表明,出行距离、机动出行概率对交通碳排放产生显著的正效应,而出行频率的影响并不显著;同时,出行结构的影响要远远大于出行总量的影响。另外,城市空间结构对城市交通碳排放产生显著影响,单位社区居民的出行行为整体具有“低碳”性质,应从低碳视角对单位社区进行重新审视。

关键词: 低碳城市, 个体行为, 交通碳排放, 结构方程模型, 北京市

Abstract: While increasing awareness of global climate change has given rise to a global movement of low-carbon city, the potential of urban planning on CO2 emission reduction has attracted much scholarly and practical attention. Specifically, it is argued that patterns of urban development and neighborhood-scale built environment affect access are supposed to influence people's travel behavior, and hence CO2 emissions. Since the 1980s, urban development in China has transformed from danwei-based, mixed land-use, and pedestrian and bicycle-friendly pattern toward zoning-based, automobile-oriented urban form. Such transformation may yield the growth of automobile, high-carbon travel behavior, while prohibiting de-carbonization of urban development in China. This study examines the impacts of neighborhood-scale urban form on individual travel behavior, and thereby, CO2 emissions from daily travel behavior, based on a daily activity survey of 1048 residents from 10 selected neighborhoods of Beijing in 2007. The survey covers activity diary of consecutive 48 hours including a Sunday and a Monday, while only Monday travel behavior is used for this study. Using structural equation model, the results first of all show that both travel distance and mode choice have significant effects on CO2 emissions and their effects are different. The latter's effect is much higher than the former's. What's more, travel frequency does not influence CO2 emissions significantly. Secondly, urban spatial structure has a significant effect on individuals' travel behavior and thus CO2 emissions; residents in different neighborhoods perform very differently. For instance, the travel distance of danwei residents is comparatively short, while the mode choice is mainly non-motor vehicle, thus danwei community shows much less CO2 emissions from urban transport. In contrast, the travel distance of residents in affordable housing community is much longer, while the mode choice is mainly motor vehicle, thus it shows much higher CO2 emissions. To sum up, the travel behavior of Danwei residents is to some extent low-carbon, and danwei neighborhood is a kind of low-carbon spatial structure. Therefore we should pay more attention to this unique neighborhood in China.

Key words: low-carbon city, individuals' travel behavior, CO2 emissions from urban transport, structural equation model (SEM), Beijing