地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (5): 685-697.doi: 10.11821/xb201105011

• 自然地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中原地区4 ka BP前后异常洪水事件的沉积证据

张俊娜, 夏正楷   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-14 修回日期:2011-03-15 出版日期:2011-05-20 发布日期:2011-07-13
  • 通讯作者: 夏正楷(1942-), 男, 教授, 主要从事环境演变及环境考古研究。E-mail: xiazk@urban.pku.edu.cn E-mail:xiazk@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张俊娜(1984-), 女, 博士研究生, 主要从事环境演变及环境考古研究。E-mail: junnazh@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目(2010BAK67B02)

Deposition Evidences of the 4 ka BP Flood Events in Central China Plains

ZHANG Junna, XIA Zhengkai   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2011-01-14 Revised:2011-03-15 Online:2011-05-20 Published:2011-07-13
  • Supported by:

    National Science and Technology Supporting Project, No.2010BAK67B02

摘要: 国内外考古学和第四纪地质学研究的大量证据表明,4000 a BP前后是史前洪水频发的时期,这次史前洪水事件的性质、规模、起因以及它对人类文化演进的影响一直是国际学术界关心的问题。我国有关4000 a BP前后史前洪水的研究始于20 世纪90 年代,在随后的十几年间,先后在青海喇家遗址、河南新寨遗址、锉李遗址、孟县遗址、山东尹家城遗址等处发现了这次洪水事件的地质和考古遗迹。这些古洪水遗迹的发现,受到国内外学者的高度重视。中原地区是华夏文明的发祥地,尽管这一地区4000 a BP前后洪水事件的遗迹已有发现,但数量偏少,研究程度不够深入,远不能满足人们对古洪水、古气候研究的需求,也不能满足对华夏文明起源研究的需求。为此,在过去工作基础上,结合最新的考古发掘,我们近年来继续在中原地区开展4000 a BP古洪水的研究,相继发现了多处这次洪水事件的地质和考古记录,其中以河南西部的偃师二里头遗址、河南北部的焦作西金城遗址和山西南部的绛县周家庄遗址最具代表性。这三处遗址分别位于不同的地貌部位,研究表明,以上三处出现的史前洪水,都与当时比较湿润的气候环境有关,同时,受地貌条件的影响,它们又具有不同的洪水过程,对人类的影响也存在一定的差异。

关键词: 中原地区, 4000 a BP, 史前异常洪水事件

Abstract: Evidences from archaeological and Quaternary geological researches have proved that the prehistoric flood events occurred frequently around 4000 a BP. The flood events' characteristic, scale, cause and their influence on human cultural evolution have been a concern to researchers. In China, the research on prehistoric flood around 4000 a BP started in the 1990s. In the following 10 years, geologic and archaeological relics were gradually found in Lajia Site of Qinghai Province, Xinzhai Site of Henan Province, Cuoli Site of Henan Province, Mengxian Site of Henan Province, Yinjiacheng Site of Shandong Province, etc., which aroused attention at home and abroad. The Central China Plains, the birthplace of Chinese civilization, have a few 4000 a BP flood relic sites, however, the number is small and much work should be done. Based on the previous researches and latest archaeological excavations, we carried out a study on 4000 a BP flood events in the Central China Plains, and found many geologic and archaeological relics sites, of which the most representative were the Erlitou Site of Luoyang, western Henan Province, the Xijincheng Site of Jiaozuo, northern Henan Province, and the Zhoujiazhuang Site of Jiangxian, southern Shanxi Province. These sites are situated on different types of landforms. Our research shows that all the three prehistoric flood events were related to humid climate. Meanwhile, due to different geomorphic conditions, the flood processes were different, and their influences on human beings were different, too. Our research extends the distribution area of flood relics, helps people to know more about the 4000 a BP extreme flood events, and provides abundant materials for further discussion on the environmental background of the origin of Chinese civilization.

Key words: Central China Plains, 4000 a BP, prehistoric extreme flood event