地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (4): 515-524.doi: 10.11821/xb201104008

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国农村聚居演变的驱动机制及态势分析

周国华1, 贺艳华1, 唐承丽1, 于涛2, 肖国珍1   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 长沙410081;
    2. 科学出版社, 北京100717
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-15 修回日期:2011-02-11 出版日期:2011-04-20 发布日期:2011-04-20
  • 作者简介:周国华(1965-), 男, 湖南娄底人, 教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110002289M), 主要从事土地评价、城乡规划及乡村地理等方面研究。E-mail: uuy828@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金项目(BTL033); 湖南师范大学青年基金项目(Z080625); 湖南师范大学人文地理学校级重点学科项目

Dynamic Mechanism and Present Situation of Rural Settlements Evolution in China

ZHOU Guohua1, HE Yanhua1, TANG Chengli1, YU Tao2, XIAO Guozhen1   

  1. 1. Department of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410008, China;
    2. Science Press, Beijing 100717, China
  • Received:2010-09-15 Revised:2011-02-11 Online:2011-04-20 Published:2011-04-20
  • Supported by:

    National Social Science Foundation of China, No.BTL033; Youth Foundation of Hunan Normal University,No.Z080625; Key Subject of Hunan Normal University about Human Geography

摘要: 在深入分析了自然环境约束、基础设施建设、地域文化传承与融合、城镇化与产业经济转型、土地使用变革与创新、农户行为模式转化、宏观政策环境及其他因素对农村聚居演变影响的基础上,基于各影响因素对农村聚居演变作用方式与程度的不同,将这些因素划分为基础因子、新型因子与突变因子3 类。各类因子对农村聚居的作用侧重点有所不同,基础因子的驱动作用主要集中在传统农村聚居特征的延续,新型因子的驱动作用主要是促进农村聚居的转型,而突变因子的驱动作用则可能带来农村聚居的突变,三者共同构成了农村聚居演变的“三轮”驱动机制。3 种驱动因素的作用形成了3 条典型驱动路径,即基础因子作用下低速平稳的传统路径、新型因子作用下快速发展新型路径、突变因子作用下的突变性偶然路径。农村聚居演变的一般过程可以划分为初期阶段、过渡阶段、发展阶段、成熟阶段等4 个阶段,在不同的发展阶段,农村聚落体系、聚居规模、聚居形态、聚居功能、聚居文化、聚居环境等均呈现出不同的特征。

关键词: 农村聚居, 演变态势, 演变阶段, 驱动机制, 中国

Abstract: This paper makes a deep analysis of the influencing factors in rural settlements evolution, including natural environment constraints, infrastructure, regional cultural inheritance and integration, urbanization and rural industry transformation, land use reformation and innovation, rural household behavior conversion, macro-control policy factors, and so on. Based on the differences between their effective way and degree to rural settlements evolution, these factors are classified into base factors, new-type factors and mutation factors. The driving of base factors is mainly focused on traditional inheritance of rural settlements, the new-type factors mainly have effect on rural settlements transition, and the mutation factors may bring about sudden change. All these factors constitute "three-wheel" driving mechanism of rural settlements evolution, and shape three typical driver paths, which are slow smooth path under the base factors, new path to rapid development under the new-type factors, sudden change path under the mutation factors.
The paper also investigates the overall situation of rural settlements evolution in the aspects of the settlement system, settlements scale, settlements morphology, settlements function, settlements culture, settlements environment, and so on. And the general process of rural settlements evolution is divided into four stages, i.e., initial stage, transitional stage, development stage and mature stage.

Key words: rural settlements, evolution, evolution stage, dynamic mechanism, China