地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (4): 457-467.doi: 10.11821/xb201104003

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市职住空间错位对居民通勤行为的影响分析——基于就业可达性与通勤时间的讨论

刘志林1, 王茂军2   

  1. 1. 清华大学公共管理学院, 北京100084;
    2. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京100037
  • 收稿日期:2010-07-19 修回日期:2010-11-29 出版日期:2011-04-20 发布日期:2011-06-01
  • 通讯作者: 王茂军(1973-), 男, 山东费县人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110005990M), 主要研究方向为城市地 理。 E-mail:maojunw@yeah.net
  • 作者简介:刘志林(1978-), 女, 江西新余市人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110007748M), 主要研究方向为城市社会地理, 住房政策, 城市规划与政策。E-mail: zhilinliu@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40801056; 40601030)

Job Accessibility and Its Impacts on Commuting Time of Urban Residents in Beijing: From a Spatial Mismatch Perspective

LIU Zhilin1, WANG Maojun2   

  1. 1. School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    2. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037, China
  • Received:2010-07-19 Revised:2010-11-29 Online:2011-04-20 Published:2011-06-01
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40801056; No.40601030

摘要: 基于问卷调查的非汇总数据、第五次人口普查和第一次经济普查数据,测度了北京城市124 个街道的就业可达性,并作为职住空间错位的标度指标,讨论了职住空间错位与居民通勤时间之间的关系。研究发现:① 北京城市中心区的就业可达性高于郊区,高就业可达性的街道主要集中在二环以内及东二环至东四环的东北一隅。② 全体样本的回归分析发现,在控制社会经济属性与住房状况等条件下,街道就业可达性对通勤时间的影响并不显著,但就业可达性平方与居民通勤时间存在负向相关关系。③ 分收入组来看,中高收入组两变量影响均不显著,中低收入组和低收入组就业可达性对通勤时间的影响显著,表现为通勤时间与就业可达性为正向相关,与就业可达性平方为负向相关,说明一定的阈值范围内居住街道就业可达性的提高鼓励居民延长通勤时间,但超过一定阈值后则限制居民长时间通勤。该结果与西方城市研究的研究结论不同,反映出中国城市处于空间重构和转型期的独特性。但二者的共同点是低收入居民等弱势群体更容易受城市职住关系的结构性变化的制约,城市规划和住房政策应更加重视通过公共服务设施的空间配置消减低收入居民面临的空间障碍。

关键词: 空间错位, 就业可达性, 通勤时间, 北京

Abstract: The spatial mismatch theory developed in the 1960s in western urban literature has drawn much attention to adverse impacts of employment decentralization and housing segregation on disadvantaged population such as ethnic minorities and low-income residents. Recently scholars have noticed the trend of home-work separation in Chinese cities, but most of them use commuting behavior as an indicator of job-housing mismatch. In this paper, we use population and employment data at sub-district (jiedao) level from the Fifth Population Census and the First Economic Census, and calculate the job accessibility index for each sub-district as a measure of spatial mismatch in Beijing. Based on data from a 2007 resident survey in Beijing, we also examine the extent to which sub-district job accessibility index may affect individual commuting time. Our analysis finds that job-housing mismatch is emerging in the city of Beijing but exhibits unique spatial patterns and mechanisms as opposed to the US case. Job accessibility shows great variation across sub-districts in Beijing, with inner-city neighborhoods more accessible to employment than the suburbs. In addition, regression analysis shows complex relationship between job accessibility and individual commuting. Sub-district job accessibility has no significant impact on commuting time in general, but it shows significant curve-linear relationship with commuting time of low-income residents. Higher job accessibility index may encourage longer commuting by low-income residents living in the sub-districts up to a certain threshold, beyond which low-income residents tend to commute shorter. Relative concentration of low-income residents and higher-wage jobs in inner-city residents, as well as greater reliance on public transportation in general, may explain such a complex picture.

Key words: spatial mismatch, job accessibility, commuting time, Beijing