地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (3): 324-330.doi: 10.11821/xb201103004

• 水沙研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河内蒙古河段冲淤演变及其影响因素

秦毅1, 张晓芳1, 王凤龙2, 颜恒1, 韩海军1   

  1. 1. 西安理工大学西北水资源与环境生态教育部重点实验室, 西安710048;
    2. 哈尔滨市水利规划设计研究院, 哈尔滨150076
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-18 修回日期:2010-12-16 出版日期:2011-03-20 发布日期:2011-05-15
  • 作者简介:秦毅(1959-), 女, 江苏常州人, 教授。研究方向为干旱区水文水资源、河流泥沙。E-mail: 13571991500@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2011CB403305)

Scour and Silting Evolution and Its Influencing Factors in Inner Mongolia Reach

QIN Yi1, ZHANG Xiaofang1, WANG Fenglong2, YAN Heng1, HAN Haijun1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of North-West Water Resources and Ecology Environment of Education Ministry, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China;
    2. Water Conservancy Plan and Design Institute of Harbin, Harbin 150076, China
  • Received:2010-09-18 Revised:2010-12-16 Online:2011-03-20 Published:2011-05-15
  • Supported by:

    National Basic Research Program of China, No.2011CB403305

摘要: 冲淤平衡的河流具有调整河床变形使之趋向不变形的特性,这种特性必然反映在河床横断面冲淤演变的趋势之中。据此,采用横断面冲淤指标跟踪计算法生成黄河上游巴彦高勒、三湖河口站1976-2006 年的横断面冲淤演变时间序列,对该长期序列的趋势变化和突变特点进行分析后发现:内蒙古河床演变明显存在3 个阶段,即演变相对稳定阶段、河床快速萎缩变形阶段和新的相对稳定阶段,以及孔兑来沙大的年份是横断面冲淤面积趋势改变的时间。大型水库修建后,孔兑来沙对河道横断面冲淤趋势变化的影响更加显著,表明近年来大洪水缺失和孔兑来沙的共同作用是导致河床萎缩的重要根源。90 年代中后期横断面冲淤演变再次发生突变之后,内蒙河段进入到一个新的相对稳定期,河床边界条件已经和来水来沙条件相适应,因此在新的稳定条件下,如何治理内蒙河道的淤积萎缩值得探讨。

关键词: 内蒙河段, 横断面冲淤指标, 河床演变, 平衡

Abstract: Rivers with fluvial equilibrium are characterized by bed deformation adjustment. The erosion-deposition area in cross-section can reflect this characteristic. The time series of erosion-deposition area in BYGL and SHHK stations was obtained by quantifying change of section area during the period 1976-2006. After trend and mutation analysis, three different trends were identified in general: the quasi-equilibrium phase, rapid shrinkage phase and the new quasi-equilibrium phase. It was also found that once a big flood occurred in the ten tributaries, the trend of erosion-deposition area would change. The phenomenon was more obvious due to the decrease of deluge after the completion of upstream reservoir. After the time series had clear mutations in the late 1990s, the Inner Mongolia reach entered a new equilibrium phase. The conditions of incoming water and sediment were adapted to the bed boundary conditions. Therefore, how to control sedimentation in Inner Mongolia reach was worth discussing.

Key words: Inner Mongolia reach, erosion-deposition area, evolution, equilibrium