地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (1): 77-88.doi: 10.11821/xb201101008

• 水环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京湿地景观格局演变特征与驱动机制分析

宫兆宁1,2,3,4, 张翼然1,2,3,4, 宫辉力1,2,3,4, 赵文吉1,2,3,4   

  1. 1. 三维信息获取与应用教育部重点实验室, 北京100048;
    2. 北京市城市环境过程与数字模拟国家重点实验室培育基地, 北京100048;
    3. 资源环境与地理信息系统北京市重点实验室, 北京100048;
    4. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京100048
  • 收稿日期:2010-10-08 修回日期:2010-11-09 出版日期:2011-01-25 发布日期:2011-03-11
  • 通讯作者: 张翼然, 女, E-mail: zyiran2005@yahoo.com.cn E-mail:zyiran2005@yahoo.com.cn
  • 作者简介:宫兆宁, 女, 博士, 讲师, 主要从事湿地遥感监测研究。E-mail: gongzhn@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    北京市科技计划项目(D08040600580801); 国际科技合作项目(2010DFA92400)

Evolution of Wetland Landscape Pattern and Its Driving Factors in Beijing

GONG Zhaoning1,2,3,4, ZHANG Yiran1,2,3,4, GONG Huili1,2,3,4, ZHAOWenji1,2,3,4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of 3D Information Acquisition and Application of Ministry;
    2. Base of the State Laboratory of Urban Environmental Processes and Digital Modeling;
    3. Key Laboratory of Resource Environment and GIS of Beijing;
    4. College of Resources Environment & Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2010-10-08 Revised:2010-11-09 Online:2011-01-25 Published:2011-03-11
  • Supported by:

    Technology Plan Project of Beijing, No.D08040600580801, International S&T Cooperation Project,No.2010DFA92400

摘要: 在遥感和GIS技术的支持下,应用1984-2008 年多时相长时间序列的TM遥感数据,选取斑块总面积、平均面积、分维度、多样性、优势度和聚集度等具有典型生态意义的景观格局指数,对北京湿地20 多年的湿地景观格局演变特征进行分析,探索其演变机制。结果表明:北京湿地总面积在总体上呈先增加后急剧减少再小幅回升的趋势,1994 年的湿地总面积仅为2004 年的47.37%。北京湿地以人工湿地为主,其变化主导着湿地总面积的变化趋势。水库湖泊湿地类型面积占到33.50%~53.73%,其平均面积高于其他湿地类型。坑塘稻田类型的平均面积最小,其面积比例为16.46%~45.09%。河流湿地由于受到自然驱动因子作用较大,其分维度指数高于人工湿地类型;1992-2004 年湿地景观多样性指数由1.11 上升到1.34,表明此阶段各类型所占面积比例分布趋于均匀,而聚集度指数从65.59 下降到58.41,表明景观连通性降低,破碎化程度加重。研究不同湿地类型空间质心变化表明:密云水库面积最大,导致水库湖泊类型质心位于密云县内;1984-1998 年充足的降水使河流湿地质心整体向东北方向偏移了10.43 km,1999-2006 年,连续干旱和大量不合理的开采利用,河流湿地质心向西南部偏移了10.75 km;由于受“退稻还旱”政策影响,使得北部地区的水稻种植面积减小,坑塘稻田湿地质心2006 年以后向南偏移;市区北部兴建的奥林匹克森林公园,使2008年公园湿地质心向海淀区北部偏移。

关键词: 北京, 湿地资源, 景观格局, 演变特征, 驱动机制

Abstract: Supported by remote sensing and GIS technology, using multi-temporal TM images from 1984 to 2008 in Beijing, this paper analyzed the dynamic characteristics of wetland landscape pattern through selected indices including patch area, patch average area, fractal dimension index, diversity, dominance and contagion indices. Furthermore, the spatial centroids of each wetland type were calculated. Finally, the paper explored the evolution mode and driving factors of wetland landscape pattern. The results were obtained as follows: the total wetland area increased during the period 1984-1996, while it obviously declined from 1996 to 2004. The wetland area in 1994 accounted for only 47.37% of that in 2004. The proportion of artificial wetland area was larger than that of natural wetland. The proportion of reservoir wetland was 33.50%-53.73% and had the maximum average area. Pond and paddy field wetland type with the least average area accounted for 16.46%-45.09% of the total wetland area. The driving force of natural river wetland is mainly natural elements, so its fractal dimension index is greater than the others. The Shannon diversity index of wetland landscape increased from 1.11 in 1992 to 1.34 in 2004, indicating that the difference between proportions of each wetland type decreased and its area was evenly distributed. The contagion index went down from 65.59 to 58.41, indicating that the connectivity decreased. Miyun reservoir had the largest area and its area change had a great impact on the location of the centroid. Wetland resources degenerated gradually for the joint effects of natural and artificial factors. During the period 2006-2008, the precipitation increased and the droughty condition was relieved. The government implemented a series of proactive policies to save water resources, and the wetland area increased.

Key words: Beijing, wetland resources, landscape pattern, evolution, driving factor