地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (12): 1464-1475.doi: 10.11821/xb201012003

• 城市与聚落研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国大城市低收入邻里及其居民的贫困集聚度和贫困决定因素

何深静1, 刘玉亭2, 吴缚龙3, Chris Webster3   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理与规划学院,广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州510275;
    2. 华南理工大学建筑学院,亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室,广州510641;
    3. 卡迪夫大学城市与区域规划学院,卡迪夫CF10 3WA,英国
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-07 修回日期:2010-07-20 出版日期:2010-12-20 发布日期:2010-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘玉亭(1975-), 男, 博士、副教授, 主要从事城市住区、城市贫困、城市与区域规划等方面的研究。E-mail: ytliu@scut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:何深静(1978-), 女, 博士、副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110007703M), 主要从事城市更新、城市住房、城市贫困等方面的研究。E-mail: heshenj@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40801061; 50808082); 中山大学和华南理工大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金

Poverty Concentration and Determinants in Low-income Neighbourhoods and Social Groups in Chinese Large Cities

HE Shenjing1, LIU Yuting2, Fulong WU3, Chris WEBSTER3   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. School of Architecture, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China;
    3. School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3WA, UK
  • Received:2010-01-07 Revised:2010-07-20 Online:2010-12-20 Published:2010-12-20
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40801061; No.50808082; The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, SYSU & SCUT

摘要: 基于2007 年在中国6 个大城市开展的大规模家庭户调查,采用FGT指数法和逻辑回归分析方法,探讨中国大城市低收入邻里及其居民的贫困集聚程度和决定因素。研究发现,老城衰败邻里的贫困集聚度最高,同时承受多重不利状况的下岗/失业人员的贫困集聚度也是最高;事实贫困、被剥夺感与社会福利分配之间存在不匹配现象。在贫困的决定因素方面,制度保障和市场薪酬对城市贫困的发生具有同等重要的作用,但对不同低收入邻里和不同社会群体又表现出不同的关联性。随着市场作用的加强,市场薪酬机制正在成为贫困产生的更为重要的决定性因素。

关键词: 贫困集聚, 贫困决定因素, 低收入邻里, 社会群体, 中国

Abstract: Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in 2007, this paper reports on a study into poverty concentration and determinants in China's low-income neighbourhoods and social groups. Three types of low-income neighbourhood are recognized: dilapidated inner city neighbourhoods, declining workers' villages, and urban villages. Respondents are grouped into four categories: working urban residents, laid-off/unemployed urban residents, retired urban residents, and rural migrants. Firstly, this study applies the FGT (Foster, Greer, Thorbeck) index to measure poverty concentration across different types of neighbourhood and different groups. The highest poverty concentration is found in dilapidated inner city neighbourhoods and the laid-off/unemployed group which endure multiple disadvantages. Meanwhile, mismatches between actual hardships, sense of deprivation, and distribution of social welfare provision are found. Second, we ran logistic regression models to analyze the association between poverty generation and various explanatory variables, and thus examine poverty determinants in different neighbourhoods and groups. Variations in institutional protection and market remuneration are becoming equally important in predicting poverty generation, and these are differently associated with poverty generation in different kinds of neighbourhoods and groups. As China's urban economy is increasingly shaped by markets, the mechanism of market remuneration is becoming a more important determinant of poverty patterns, especially for people who are eliminated or excluded from state institutions, notably, laid-off workers and rural migrants.

Key words: poverty concentration, poverty determinants, low-income neighbourhood, social group, China