地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (11): 1355-1362.doi: 10.11821/xb201011005

• 气候环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

近50多年来澜沧江流域农业灌溉需水的时空变化

顾世祥1,2, 何大明3, 崔远来1, 李远华4   

  1. 1. 武汉大学水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室,武汉430072;
    2. 云南省水利水电勘测设计研究院,昆明650021;
    3. 云南大学亚洲国际河流中心、云南省国际河流与跨境生态安全重点实验室,昆明650091;
    4. 水利部农村水利司,北京100053
  • 收稿日期:2010-04-26 修回日期:2010-08-06 出版日期:2010-11-20 发布日期:2011-01-03
  • 通讯作者: 何大明(1959-), 四川南充人, 教授/博导, 中国地理学会理事, 主要从事国际河流、跨境生态安全等方面研究。 E-mail:gushxang@qq.com; dmhe@ynu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:顾世祥(1972-), 彝族, 云南镇雄人, 博士, 教授级高工, 主要从事农业节水灌溉研究
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划(973 计划) 资助项目(2003CB415105); 云南省水资源综合规划专题研究(YSZY-2003-01)

Variations of Agricultural Water Requirements in Lancang River Basin in Last 50 Years

GU Shixiang1,2, HE Daming3, CUI Yuanlai1, LI Yuanhua4   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China;

    2. Yunnan Institute for Investigation, Design and Research of Water Resources & Hydropower Engineering, Kunming 650021, China;
    3. Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;

    4. Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Rural Water Supply, MWR, P.R.China, Beijing 100053, China
  • Received:2010-04-26 Revised:2010-08-06 Online:2010-11-20 Published:2011-01-03
  • Supported by:

    Key Project of Chinese National Programs for Fundamental Research and Development (973 Program), No.2003CB415105; Special Research on Comprehensive Planning of Water Resource in Yunnan Province, No.YSZY-2003-01

摘要:

利用澜沧江流域云南境内8 个气象站1950s-2007 年的逐月气象数据,现状作物种植、农业耕作、田间水分管理等资料,应用Mann-Kendall 法和R/S 分析法,探索50 多年来流域区的干湿变化、农业灌溉定额转折变化趋势及分布规律。结果表明:年、季平均温度普遍地显著升高,降水量干季增加、湿季减少;大部分地区的参照作物腾发量ET0在年度及干、湿季都呈增加趋势,仅在流域中段大理、剑川、耿马的部分时段为减少,干湿指数大多数地区都是降低;水稻及农业综合灌溉需水定额从流域上游到下游逐渐呈减少、增-减并存到增加的趋势。气象因子、ET0、干湿指数、水稻灌溉及农业综合灌溉定额发生转折变异现象都集中在澜沧江中下段的耿马、思茅、景洪、勐腊等地,且时间系列的转折变异点在1960s-1990s 的各个时期均有出现。水稻灌溉定额随纬度方向变化的相关系数为0.513,随海拔高程变化为0.610,最高值出现在维西,最低值为勐腊;农业综合灌溉定额受作物种植结构和水稻种植面积的影响较大,二者相关系数达到0.826,但其与纬度、海拔的变化规律不明显,最高值在大理,最低值在维西。灌溉定额在小范围内的多样性变化,表明在纵向岭谷特殊环境对地表水汽输送、气温和气流场分布等的“通道-阻隔”作用下,澜沧江河谷农业灌溉需水量时空变化的复杂性。

关键词: 农业灌溉需水, 时空变化, 澜沧江流域, 纵向岭谷区

Abstract:

Weather data of 8 meteorologic stations in the Lancang River Basin from the 1950s to 2007 and current cropping pattern, field water moisture management, etc., were collected and used to investigate changes in humidity and crop irrigation water requirements using Mann-Kendall and the Rescaled Range Analysis methods. The results show that in the whole basin, annual and dry-season average temperatures significantly increased, and dry-season rainfall increased while wet-season rainfall decreased. Evaportranspiration (ET0) increased during both dry and wet seasons at all the stations except Dali, Jianchuan and Gengma, and the aridity-humidity index decreased at most stations. The turning points of weather factors, ET0, the aridity-humidity index, paddy irrigation requirements and total agricultural water requirements occurred from the 1960s to the 1990s. The spatial changing tendency of paddy irrigation quota increased with the increase of altitude and latitude, and the coorelation coefficients are 0.513 and 0.610, respectively. The maximum value inWeixi, while the minimum in Mengla.

Key words: agricultural irrigation quota, Lancang River, the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region