地理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (10): 1299-1310.doi: 10.11821/xb201010014

• 交通地理 • 上一篇    

中国近代港口贸易网络的空间结构——基于旧海关对外—埠际贸易数据的分析(1877-1947)

王哲, 吴松弟   

  1. 复旦大学历史地理研究中心,上海200433
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-09 修回日期:2010-05-18 出版日期:2010-10-20 发布日期:2010-10-20
  • 作者简介:王哲(1981-), 男, 博士生, 山东聊城人, 主要从事历史地理学研究。E-mail: humboldth@163.com

The Spatial Structure of the Treaty Ports in Modern China: Based on the Chinese Marine Customs Foreign and Domestic Trade Data (1877-1947)

WANG Zhe, WU Songdi   

  1. Center for Historical Geography Study of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2010-01-09 Revised:2010-05-18 Online:2010-10-20 Published:2010-10-20

摘要:

利用现代地理学方法,分析《中国旧海关史料》等海关出版物中的国际贸易和埠际贸易数据,考察了12 个主要港口城市的国际贸易网络,46 个港口城市埠际贸易的网络空间结构。结果表明:制度因素在港口职能变迁过程中作用巨大。贸易量在全国中位水平以下的小型港口,多存在由开埠初期吞吐平衡型港口向偏出口拉动型发展的趋势;在中位水平以上的港口,多趋向于进出口平衡发展。在本文研究时段内,国际贸易空间结构赫芬达尔指数较高,其集中度和垄断性很强,后期愈发明显。相反埠际贸易的指数一直低位运行,处于多极发展的态势。埠际贸易空间结构经历三个阶段发展,具备一定轴—辐结构特征。

关键词: 中国旧海关, 埠际贸易, 空间结构, 赫芬达尔指数, 近代中国

Abstract:

The economic links between ports were the most important index of spatial structure. Researches on the ports spatial structure evolution over a long period were not extensively conducted on the late-imperial China and the Republic of China. In this paper, the ports spatial structure of foreign and domestic trade including 46 cities was analyzed based on the Chinese Maritime Customs trade data. The results were obtained as follows: (1) Due to domestic political instability, institutional factors played a key role in the changing process of ports functions. The characteristics of the hinterland determined the ports function. (2) Based on the analysis of Net Total Foreign Imports and Total Exports of Local Origin, the small cities below the average level had an export-oriented trend and those above the average level tended to be balanced in trade. (3) The Herfindahl index of spatial structure on foreign trade was relatively high. The inter-ports trade network was at a moderate level of concentration, and it was also stable in the 50-year period. With the trade expansion in space and quantity, the direct transports between small cities took the place of the transit hub. However, there was an opposite trend during the Sino-Japanese War. (4) There was a huge difference between southern and northern China concerning the ports spatial structure. The inter-ports trade network in the Yangtze River Delta developed well but it was less developed in the Pearl River Delta. As to the Bohai Rim region, it could not present a basic exchange networks (in terms of the part under customs inspection). (5) The ports spatial structure in eastern coastal China since the 19th century went through three stages and reached its peak before the war. The structure was characterized by a Hub-Spoke network.

Key words: Chinese Maritime Customs, inter-port trade, spatial structure, Herfindahl index, modern China